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“Hairiness” is a Facsimile of Reorganized Cytoskeletons: A Cytopathic Effect of Coxiella burnetii

Yonsei Medical Journal 2019년 60권 10호 p.890 ~ 897
 ( Lee Won-Young ) - Yonsei University College of Medicine Department of Microbiology

Abstract


In 1993, I reported that Coxiella burnetii transforms human B cells into hairy cells (cbHCs), the first hairy cell reported outside of hairy cell leukemia (HCL). Over last few decades, advances in molecular biology have provided evidence supporting that C. burnetii induces hairiness and inhibits the apoptosis of host cells. The present review summarizes new information in support of cbHC. C. burnetii was shown to induce reorganization of the cytoskeleton and to inhibit apoptosis in host cells. Peritoneal B1a cells were found to be permissive for virulent C. burnetii Nine Mile phase I (NMI) strains in mice. C. burnetii severely impaired E-cad expression in circulating cells of Q fever patients. B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma was linked to C. burnetii. Mutation of BRAF V600E was pronounced in HCL, but “hairiness” was not linked to the mutation. Risk factors shared among coxiellosis and HCL in humans and animals were reported in patients with Q-fever. Accordingly, I propose that C. burnetii induces reorganization of the cytoskeleton and inhibits apoptosis as cytopathic effects that are not target cell specific. The observed hairiness in cbHC appears to be a fixed image of dynamic nature, and hairy cells in HCL are distinct among lymphoid cells in circulation. As the cytoskeleton plays key roles in maintaining cell structural integrity in health and disease, the pathophysiology of similar cytopathic effects should be addressed in other diseases, such as myopathies, B-cell dyscrasias, and autoimmune syndromes.

키워드

Coxiella burnetii; C. burnetii-induced hairy cell; cytoskeleton; anti-apoptosis; hairy cell leukemia
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