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Metabolomic understanding of intrinsic physiology in Panax ginseng during whole growing seasons

Journal of Ginseng Research 2019년 43권 4호 p.654 ~ 665
 ( Lee Hyo-Jung ) - Chonnam National University Division of Food and Nutrition

 ( Jeong Jae-Sik ) - Chonnam National University Department of Statistics
 ( Alves Alexessander Couto ) - Imperial College London Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
 ( Han Sung-Tai ) - Korea Ginseng Corp. R&D Headquarters
 ( In Gyo ) - Korea Ginseng Corp. R&D Headquarters
 ( Kim Eun-Hee ) - Korea Basic Science Institute Protein Structure Group
 ( Jeong Woo-Sik ) - Inje University College of Biomedical Science and Engineering Department of Food and Life Sciences
 ( Hong Young-Shick ) - Chonnam National University Division of Food and Nutrition


Background: Panax ginseng Meyer has widely been used as a traditional herbal medicine because of its diverse health benefits. Amounts of ginseng compounds, mainly ginsenosides, vary according to seasons, varieties, geographical regions, and age of ginseng plants. However, no study has comprehensively determined perturbations of various metabolites in ginseng plants including roots and leaves as they grow.

Methods: Nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR)?based metabolomics was applied to better understand the metabolic physiology of ginseng plants and their association with climate through global profiling of ginseng metabolites in roots and leaves during whole growing periods.

Results: The results revealed that all metabolites including carbohydrates, amino acids, organic acids, and ginsenosides in ginseng roots and leaves were clearly dependent on growing seasons from March to October. In particular, ginsenosides, arginine, sterols, fatty acids, and uracil diphosphate glucose?sugars were markedly synthesized from March until May, together with accelerated sucrose catabolism, possibly associated with climatic changes such as sun exposure time and rainfall.

Conclusion: This study highlights the intrinsic metabolic characteristics of ginseng plants and their associations with climate changes during their growth. It provides important information not only for better understanding of the metabolic phenotype of ginseng but also for quality improvement of ginseng through modification of cultivation.


Metabolic physiology; Metabolomics; NMR; Panax ginseng
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