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우리나라 災害補償에 關한 制度的 考察

Administrative Consideration of Wormen´s Compensation Insurance System in Korea

공중보건잡지 1970년 7권 2호 p.595 ~ 602
조상언 (  ) - 서울대학교 보건대학원

Abstract


Social insurance is emerging as an important sociopolitical means for constructing a modern welfare state. It is also of great national importance in the economic and social development of this country. In view of such trends in the community of nations and such importance in this nation, it is necessary to extend and deveiop social insurance.
As a means of introducing a healthy and sound social insurance system in the future and achieving substantial effects from ??, it is considered very essential to evaluate and analyze the current operating status of, and problems involved in the existing system.
In order to help achieve such objectives, the author visited the Labor Administration Bureau of the Office of Labor form October 1 to 10, 1970, and studied and analyzed data concerning operating status of the industrial accident compensation insurance. The data was collected from officials concerned of the bureau´s Insurance Mangement Section and Insurance Premium Collection Section. As a result, the following conclusion was reached.
1) In the initial year, 1964, the scope of industries subject to the application of the Industrial Accident Compensation Law was confined to mining and manufacturing industries. The scope has since been expanded year after year until the end of 1969, when all the industries were made applicable to the law.
2) The minimum number of workers employed by each enterprise subfect to the application of the law has yearly been lowered: from 500 workers in 1964 to 200 in 1965, then to 150 in 1966, and finally to 50 in 1969.
3) In the initial year, 1964, the mumber of applicable enterprises was 64 involving a total of 81,798 applicable workers. In 1969, the figure increased to 3,696 enterprises involving 683,377 applicable workers.
4) Insurance premiums are paid by the proprietor in full. The average premium rate was 2.16 per cent in 1964, and 2.36 per cent in 1969. The rate for the mining industry was higher than that for any other kind of industry. The second highest rate accounted for the construction business, the third rate for the transportation, warehousing and communications businesses, and the thrid rate for the manufacturing industry. Commercial and service business recorded the lowest rate.
5) The collection ratio of insurance premium was the highest at 99.3 per cent in 1965, and the lowested at 78.9 per cent in 1969. The average yearly collection ratio was 92.5 per cent.
6) Managerial expenses required for the operation of the industrial accident compensation insurance constituted 9.6 per cent of annual receipt in 1964. In 1965, only 4.6 per cent was paid out of the general account. From 1966 to 1969, surcharge was collected from industrial proprietors for the payment of managerial expenses.
7) The percentage of carryover form previous year was the greatest or 34.6 per cent in 1964, and the smallest or 9.8 per cent in 1969. The average yearly carryover was 19.7 per cent.
8) The ratio of receipt to payment of insurance was the highest or 95.8 per cent in 1966, the second highest at 98.0 per cent in 1965, and the third highest at 72.9 per cent in 1967 and 1968, while it was the lowest at 33.5 per cent in 1964. The ratio was the highest for the mining industry, the second highest for the transportation, warehousing and communications businesses, followed by the manufacturing industry electricity and gas businesses in that order.
9) The average annual number of sick or injured workers constituted 8.0 per cent of the total number of applicable workers. It reached 10.8 per cent or the highest rate in 1967, 9.1 per cent or the second high in 1966, and 6.9 per cent or the lowest rate in 1968.
10) The average annual ration of death was 0.09 per cent throughout the surveyed period. The highest ratio, 0.11 per cent, was recorded in 1966, and the lowest ratio, 0.07 per cent, in 1968 and 1969.
11) Payment for medical treatment and recuperation constitututed 54.5 per cent of the total number of applicable cases. The second greatest proportion was constituted by payment for suspension of work, and the third greatest proportion by that for disablement. The amount paid for medical treatment and recuperation constituted the greatest proportion of the total amount of insurance money paid, that to bereaved families the second greatest proportion, and that for suspensionof work the third proportion, while the smallest proportion accounted for payment for funeral and ritual.
12) The amount of insurance money paid per case was ₩16,276 or the greatest in 1969 while it was ₩9,134 or the smallest in 1965 and or ₩9,246 or the second smallest in 1967.
13) The average annual number of days of medical treatment and recuperation for which insurance money was paid was 32. The average amount of insurance money paid for medical treatment and recuperation was ₩13,166 per case, and ₩451 per day. The average amount of insurance money paid for suspension of work was₩4,993 per case, that for disablement ₩65,365, that to bereaved family ₩338,215 per case, and that for funeral and ritual ₩32,031.
14) The amount of insurance money is generally small. It should be increased to an adequate amount.
15) The following problems are involved in the industrial accident compensation insurance: how to apply this system to small enterprises; how to pay insurance money for sickness or injury requiring medical treatment or recuperation for less than 10 days; how to readjust premium rates on the basis of the statistically proven degrees of risk; how to make the National Treasury pay insurance premium; how to make the amount of insurance money realistic; how to adjust the amount and number of days for medical treatment and recuperation for different degrees of sickness or injury; how to practice a point system for receipt of medical treatment; how to obtain the required numberof training instructors; and how to expedite the evaluation and resuarch activities which have so far been slow.
16) Through the acceleration of the analysis, evaluation, and research activities on statistics concerning insurance, problems should be detected and solved step by step, and active measures taken to improve the system effectively.

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