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실험적 절식에 있어서 혈액세포 및 조혈기능의 변화에 관한 연구

ALTERATIONS OF BLOOD CELLS AND HEMATOPOIETIC FUNCTION DURING THE EXPERIMENTAL STARVATION

대한수의학회지 1961년 1권 1호 p.1 ~ 29
이방환 (  ) - 전북대학교 농과대학 수의학과 수의내과학교실

Abstract


Practioners are well aware of the need for routine hematological examination as an aid to establishing definite diagnoses of various diseases. Some of these conditions, however, are often manifested by anorexia. Although blood changes in the course of diseases are mainly attributable to specific etiology concerned, there is a possibility that changes in blood cells may be an effect of starvation or complete anorexia. The present studies were, therefore, undertaken in an effort to gaining more information as is to the blood cell changes in the course of starvation, as measured by routine hematological examination.
Numerous observations on the pathological changes during the starvation of various animal species and human, especially of small animal have been reported.(1-9)
Takizawa(1) concluded that the main causes of the pathological changes in undernutrition of dogs, known as chronic starvation, are unbalanced consumption of nutrients in body and resorption of its catabolic substances, and that it differs from complete starvation in that pathological changes may be attributable to the catabolic action of body constituents. He also showed hematological differences in both conditions: The decrement of total blood volume was more severe in starvation than in undernutritional condition.
Increased blood sedimentation time, decrement of specific gravity in blood and plasma, low hematocrit value, low erythrocytic and leukocytic counts and low hemoglobin value, were usually seen in undernutritional condition, while almost normal ranges were retained in complete starvation.
On the other hand, the recent worK of Chu(6) demonstrated the hemoconcentration with the increased hemoglobin volume and hematocrit value in experimental complete starvation on rats. This work was conducted with blood samples from the heart of rats.
In regard to the hemopoietic organ in experimental starvation, Iketa(7) reported slight hyperplastic condition of red marrow in early stage of starvation. Suzuki(4) also suggested active hyperplastic function of bone marrow in early stage and marked atrophy of lymphatic apparatus in the experimental starvation on small animal.
Sato(8) and Hashimoto(9) recently demonstrated the atrophy of fat marrow with the formation of gellatinons marrow in starved rabbits and according to Hashimoto these changes wers restored in one to three days a ter refeeding.
There were few studies reported on the starvation in large animal. Nakamura et al(10) observed on a horse with doubtful healthy condition and Miyamoto(11) dealt with 5 horses affected by infectious anemia.
Shinosaki et al(12) studied undernutrition of human and indicated the marked diminution of myeloid and lymphoid cell formation. Ueda(13) and Misao(14) suggested that reduced erythroietic and leukopoietic function may be particularly caused by disturbances in maturation of normoblasts and myelocytes respectively. In addition, they reported the disturbance of monocytic formation. Natsu(15) demonstrated decreased lymphocytes and fewer mitochondria in cytoplasm of lymphocytes and monocytes by means of supravital stain of leukocytes.
Many of the literature cited above suggested a possibility of hemopoietic disturbances in starvation or undernutrition.
On the other hand, Ancel(16) described in his report on human starvation that increased erythropoiesis was found in the sternal marrow of anemic and starving persons.
The possibility that excessive peripheral destruction of the red blood cells may be involved was suggested by reports of hemosiderin deposits in tissue, particulary spleen and liver of starved human and animal (16,3, 19,20,21).
Extensive observation were made on hematological changes following starvation of human (16, 17, 18) and animals, and divergent results have been reported. In summarized view, apart from species, these divergences may be attributed to the length of period of starvation, degrees of starvation in quality and quantity of nutrients and other factors such as shifts in body hydration and concomitaut diseases, which in themselves may radically alter the composition of blood.
The paper herein reported concerns a preliminary observation made on starved rabbits by means of routine hematological examination. Particular emphasis was placed on the alteration of reticulocytes as a regenerative change in the course of complete starvation.

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