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Virus like particles- A recent advancement in vaccine development

미생물학회지 2019년 55권 4호 p.327 ~ 343
 ( Sarka Bishajit ) - Jahangirnagar University Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering

 ( Islam Syed Sajidul ) - Jahangirnagar University Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering
 ( Zohora Umme Salma ) - Jahangirnagar University Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering
 ( Ullah Md. Asad ) - Jahangirnagar University Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering

Abstract


The unintentional reversion of various attenuated and inactivated vaccines has led the way of discovering and development of the virus like particles (VLPs) in the 1970s and 80s. The VLPs contain only the antigenic determinant portion of the structure of a target virus that is able to produce the same immune responses like the original viruses, however, since the particles do not contain any genetic material, the particles can’t infect like the actual viruses. They are able to induce both the humoral and cell mediated immune responses. Since infection doesn’t occur, this technology is a safe and reliable way to combat infectious diseases. Currently, VLPs are produced for a good number of infectious diseases and researches are going on to develop VLPs against many more diseases. Based on the structure, VLPs can be divided into two types: enveloped and non-enveloped VLPs. Enveloped VLPs have greater flexibility.
To produce VLPs, various expression systems can be used: yeast, bacterial, mammalian, insect, and plant cells can be used. Insect cell culture system is mainly used in VLP production.
The appropriate system should be determined based on the VLP type in question. The production and purification of all the VLPs are quite similar: the cloning of the gene for the antigenic portion, cell harvesting, disruption (if necessary), clarification, concentration and characterization, these steps are done using various means. This review summarizes the types of VLPs, their immunogenic properties, various expression systems that can be used for production and the production procedures of various VLPs.

키워드

chromatography; immune systems; insect cell culture system; vaccines; virus like particles
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