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Acanthamoeba in Southeast Asia ? Overview and Challenges

Korean Journal of Parasitology 2019년 57권 4호 p.341 ~ 357
 ( Bunsuwansakul Chooseel ) - Walailak University School of Allied Health

 ( Mahboob Tooba ) - University of Malaya Faculty of Medicine Department of Medical Microbiology
 ( Hounkong Kruawan ) - Princess of Naradhiwas University Department of Microbiology
 ( Laohaprapanon Sawanya ) - Walailak University School of Public Health
 ( Chitapornpan Sukhuma ) - University of Phayao School of Energy and Environment
 ( Jawjit Siriuma ) - Walailak University School of Public Health
 ( Yasiri Atipat ) - Thammasat University Chulabhorn International College of Medicine
 ( Barusrux Sahapat ) - Walailak University School of Allied Health
 ( Bunluepuech Kingkan ) - Walailak University School of Allied Health
 ( Sawangjaroen Nongyao ) - Prince of Songkla University Department of Microbiology
 ( Salibay Cristina C. ) - De La Salle University-Dasmarinas College of Science and Computer Studies
 ( Kaewjai Chalermpon ) - Rangsit University Faculty of Medical Technology
 ( de Lourdes Pereira Maria ) - University of Aveiro Department of Medical Sciences
 ( Nissapatorn Veeranoot ) - Walailak University School of Allied Health


Acanthamoeba, one of free-living amoebae (FLA), remains a high risk of direct contact with this protozoan parasite which is ubiquitous in nature and man-made environment. This pathogenic FLA can cause sight-threatening amoebic keratitis (AK) and fatal granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) though these cases may not commonly be reported in our clinical settings. Acanthamoeba has been detected from different environmental sources namely; soil, water, hot-spring, swimming pool, air-conditioner, or contact lens storage cases. The identification of Acanthamoeba is based on morphological appearance and molecular techniques using PCR and DNA sequencing for clinico-epidemiological purposes. Recent treatments have long been ineffective against Acanthamoeba cyst, novel anti-Acanthamoeba agents have therefore been extensively investigated. There are efforts to utilize synthetic chemicals, lead compounds from medicinal plant extracts, and animal products to combat Acanthamoeba infection. Applied nanotechnology, an advanced technology, has shown to enhance the anti-Acanthamoeba activity in the encapsulated nanoparticles leading to new therapeutic options. This review attempts to provide an overview of the available data and studies on the occurrence of pathogenic Acanthamoeba among the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) members with the aim of identifying some potential contributing factors such as distribution, demographic profile of the patients, possible source of the parasite, mode of transmission and treatment. Further, this review attempts to provide future direction for prevention and control of the Acanthamoeba infection.


Acanthamoeba; clinico-epidemiology; medicinal plant; molecular; nanotechnology; Southeast Asia
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