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Fluoxetine Simultaneously Induces Both Apoptosis and Autophagy in Human Gastric Adenocarcinoma Cells

Biomolecules & Therapeutics 2020년 28권 2호 p.202 ~ 210
 ( Po Wah Wah ) - Chung-Ang University College of Pharmacy Department of Pharmacology

 ( Thein Wynn ) - Chung-Ang University College of Pharmacy Department of Pharmacology
 ( Khin Phyu Phyu ) - Chung-Ang University College of Pharmacy Department of Pharmacology
 ( Khing Tin Myo ) - Chung-Ang University College of Pharmacy Department of Pharmacology
 ( Han Khin Wah Wah ) - Chung-Ang University College of Pharmacy Department of Pharmacology
 ( Park Chan-Hee ) - Chung-Ang University College of Pharmacy Department of Pharmacology
손의동 ( Sohn Uy-Dong ) - Chung-Ang University College of Pharmacy Department of Pharmacology

Abstract


Fluoxetine is used widely as an antidepressant for the treatment of cancer-related depression, but has been reported to also have anti-cancer activity. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity of fluoxetine to human gastric adenocarcinoma cells; as shown by the MTT assay, fluoxetine induced cell death. Subsequently, cells were treated with 10 or 20 μM fluoxetine for 24 h and analyzed. Apoptosis was confirmed by the increased number of early apoptotic cells, shown by Annexin V- propidium iodide staining. Nuclear condensation was visualized by DAPI staining. A significant increase in the expression of cleaved PARP was observed by western blotting. The pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK was used to detect the extent of caspase-dependent cell death. The induction of autophagy was determined by the formation of acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs), which was visualized by acridine orange staining, and the increased expression of autophagy markers, such as LC3B, Beclin 1, and p62/SQSTM 1, observed by western blotting. The expression of upstream proteins, such as p-Akt and p-mTOR, were decreased. Autophagic degradation was evaluated by using bafilomycin, an inhibitor of late-stage autophagy. Bafilomycin did not significantly enhance LC3B expression induced by fluoxetine, which suggested autophagic degradation was impaired. In addition, the co-administration of the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine and fluoxetine significantly increased fluoxetine-induced apoptosis, with decreased p-Akt and markedly increased death receptor 4 and 5 expression. Our results suggested that fluoxetine simultaneously induced both protective autophagy and apoptosis and that the inhibition of autophagy enhanced fluoxetine-induced apoptosis through increased death receptor expression.

키워드

Fluoxetine; Autophagy; Apoptosis; Gastric adenocarcinoma
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