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Obesity Regulation through Gut Microbiota Modulation and Adipose Tissue Browning

Journal of Life Science 2019년 29권 8호 p.922 ~ 940
 ( Cho Ye-Jin ) - Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine

 ( Shamim Rahman Md. ) - Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine Department of Microbiology
 ( Kim Yong-Sik ) - Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine Department of Microbiology

Abstract


Obesity, represented by abnormal fat accumulation due to an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, is a major public health issue worldwide, leading to multiple noncommunicable diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. Diverse solutions have been proposed to combat obesity. Attention has focused on two types of adipose tissues as a promising therapeutic target in obesity: traditional brown and beige or brite. Unlike energy-storing white adipose (endocrine) tissue, traditional brown adipose tissue and beige adipose tissue have energy-dissipating thermogenic properties. Both types of tissue are present in adult humans and inducible through external stimuli, such as cold exposure, β3-adrenergic receptor agonists, and phytochemicals. Among these stimuli, microbiota present in the human intestinal tract participate in multiple metabolic activities. Modulation of gut microbiota may offer a potent and possibly curative strategy against various metabolic diseases. Numerous studies have focused on the effects of established antiobesity treatments on the gut microenvironment or brown-adipose-tissue activation. In this review, we focus mainly on stimuli known to alleviate obesity, weight gain, and metabolic diseases, in addition to known and possible inter-relations between gut microbiota modulation and similar interventions and adipose tissue browning. The findings may pave the way toward new strategies against obesity.

키워드

Brown adipose tissue; gut microbiota; obesity; thermogenesis; Ucp1
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