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녹내장의 최신 치료 안약

New classes of glaucoma medical treatment

대한의사협회지 2019년 62권 9호 p.497 ~ 504
 ( Choi Jin-A ) - 가톨릭대학교 의과대학 성빈센트병원 안과학교실

Abstract


Glaucoma is a progressive degenerative disease of the optic nerve head, characterized by a specific pattern of axonal loss and visual field deterioration. This review aims at introducing the different novel pharmacologic agents for its treatment, as well as their mechanisms. Most glaucoma patients require lifelong care and individualized treatment. Intraocular pressure (IOP), which is regulated by aqueous humor production, outflow via the trabecular meshwork (parasympathomimetics only) and uveoscleral outflow pathways, is currently the only treatable target for glaucoma treatment. Conventional glaucoma medications are categorized as β blockers, α agonists, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, parasympathomimetics, and prostaglandin analogues. The development of basic researchderived novel classes of pharmacologic agents features novel action mechanisms, which are different from those of conventional medications. New classes of recently approved or clinical trial-tested medications include Rho-kinase inhibitors, nitric oxide donors, adenosine agonists, and prostaglandin analogs targeting E-type prostanoid receptors, etc. Their integration and future development will facilitate the expansion and customization of therapeutic options.

키워드

녹내장; 고안압증; 안압; 신약 개발
Glaucoma; Ocular hypertension; Intraocular pressure; Drug development
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