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Gastrointestinal tract modeling using organoids engineered with cellular and microbiota niches

Experimental & Molecular Medicine 2020년 52권 2호 p.10 ~ 10
 ( Min Sung-Jin ) - Yonsei University Department of Biotechnology

 ( Kim Su-Ran ) - Yonsei University Department of Biotechnology
 ( Cho Seung-Woo ) - Yonsei University Department of Biotechnology

Abstract


The recent emergence of organoid technology has attracted great attention in gastroenterology because the gastrointestinal (GI) tract can be recapitulated in vitro using organoids, enabling disease modeling and mechanistic studies. However, to more precisely emulate the GI microenvironment in vivo, several neighboring cell types and types of microbiota need to be integrated into GI organoids. This article reviews the recent progress made in elucidating the crosstalk between GI organoids and components of their microenvironment. We outline the effects of stromal cells (such as fibroblasts, neural cells, immune cells, and vascular cells) on the gastric and intestinal epithelia of organoids. Because of the important roles that microbiota play in the physiology and function of the GI tract, we also highlight interactions between organoids and commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms and viruses. GI organoid models that contain niche components will provide new insight into gastroenterological pathophysiology and disease mechanisms.

키워드

Stem-cell biotechnology; Stem-cell niche
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