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탈북 청소년의 정신건강에 대한 문헌고찰: 내재화 및 외현화 문제와 관련 보호 및 위험 요인을 중심으로

Mental Health Problems of North Korean Refugee Youths in South Korea : Literature Review of Empirical Studies

사회정신의학 2019년 24권 2호 p.37 ~ 47
이은선 ( Lee Eun-Sun ) - 국립정신건강센터 정신건강연구소 연구기획과

이예은 ( Lee Ye-Eun ) - 국립정신건강센터 정신건강연구소 연구기획과
박수빈 ( Park Su-Bin ) - 국립정신건강센터 정신건강연구소 연구기획과

Abstract


North Korean refugee youths (NKRY) in South Korea have been rapidly increasing and are at greater risk of mental health problems due to multiple adversities during and after the flight and their unique social status in South Korea. This review study addressed a range of psychological and social risks for mental health of NKRY. The objectives of this study were 1) to investigate the severity of internalizing problems and externalizing problems as well as other health risk behaviors in NKRY compared with native-born youths, and 2) to identify relevant risk and protective factors, from internal (i.e., personal) to external (i.e., environmental). To this end, a total of 28 empirical studies (Korean 15, International 13) on NKRY's mental health, which were searched via online databases, were reviewed. As a result, internalizing problems (e.g., depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and suicidality) and risk behaviors (e.g., alcohol use, smoking, and drug use) were significantly prevalent in NKRY than in native-born youths. Multiple common risk/protective factors, including family composition and relationship quality, peer relations, and acculturation stress, were noted. A few mechanisms by which these factors would exacerbate or mitigate the psychological/behavioral problems were also presented. The empirical evidence supports the heightened risk of internalizing problems and health risk behaviors in NKRY. Implications for prevention, intervention strategies for NKRY and suggestions for future studies are proposed.

키워드

탈북 청소년; 정신건강; 내재화/외현화 문제;위험/보호 요인
North Korean Refugee Youths (NKRY);Mental health;Internalizing/externalizing problems;Risk/protective factors
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