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Far Beyond Cancer Immunotherapy: Reversion of Multi-Malignant Phenotypes of Immunotherapeutic-Resistant Cancer by Targeting the NANOG Signaling Axis

Immune Network 2020년 20권 1호 p.7 ~ 7
오세진 ( Oh Se-Jin ) - Korea University college of Medicine Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

 ( Lee Jae-Yoon ) - Northeastern University College of Social Sciences and Humanities College of Science
 ( Kim Yu-Kang ) - Korea University College of Medicine
 ( Song Kwon-Ho ) - Korea University college of Medicine Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
 ( Cho Eun-Ho ) - Korea University college of Medicine Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
 ( Kim Min-Sung ) - Korea University College of Medicine
 ( Jung Hee-Jae ) - Korea University College of Medicine
김태우 ( Kim Tae-Woo ) - Korea University college of Medicine Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Abstract


Cancer immunotherapy, in the form of vaccination, adoptive cellular transfer, or immune checkpoint inhibitors, has emerged as a promising practice within the field of oncology. However, despite the developing field's potential to revolutionize cancer treatment, the presence of immunotherapeutic-resistant tumor cells in many patients present a challenge and limitation to these immunotherapies. These cells not only indicate immunotherapeutic resistance, but also show multi-modal resistance to conventional therapies, abnormal metabolism, stemness, and metastasis. How can immunotherapeutic-resistant tumor cells render multi-malignant phenotypes? We reasoned that the immune-refractory phenotype could be associated with multi-malignant phenotypes and that these phenotypes are linked together by a factor that acts as the master regulator. In this review, we discussed the role of the embryonic transcription factor NANOG as a crucial master regulator we named “common factor” in multi-malignant phenotypes and presented strategies to overcome multi-malignancy in immunotherapeutic-resistant cancer by restraining the NANOG-mediated multi-malignant signaling axis. Strategies that blunt the NANOG axis could improve the clinical management of therapy-refractory cancer.

키워드

Immunotherapy; Therapy-refractory cancer; NANOG; Common factor; Multi-malignant phenotypes
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