[닫기]
잠시만 기다려 주세요. 로딩중입니다.

Associations between socioeconomic status and blood cadmium levels in Korea

Epidemiology and Health 2019년 41권 1호 p.18 ~ 18
 ( Jee Yong-Ho ) - Seoul National University Graduate School of Public Health Department of Public Health Science

 ( Cho Sung-Il ) - Seoul National University Graduate School of Public Health Department of Public Health Science

Abstract


OBJECTIVES: Although smoking is associated with both low socioeconomic status and blood cadmium (Cd) levels, the association between socioeconomic status and Cd levels remains unclear. Therefore, our study aimed to examine this association and to clarify whether smoking is a confounding or mediating variable in this relationship.

METHODS: Data (n=7,734) were drawn from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008- 2011), including years that contained data on blood Cd and urinary cotinine levels. We investigated the associations of income, education, and occupation with blood Cd levels. Smoking was investigated by categorizing participants by smoking status (never, former, and current) and pack-years into quartiles. The weekly frequency of rice and barley intake was analyzed to gain insights into participants’ dietary patterns. Additionally, urinary cotinine levels were used to ensure the validity of the smoking variables.

RESULTS: Participants earning a low income and with less formal education had higher blood Cd levels. After controlling for smoking, the association between income and Cd levels substantially weakened. Further controlling for education, the association between income and Cd levels disappeared. However, there was a strong negative association between education and Cd levels, even after controlling for smoking history, pack-years, and urinary cotinine levels.

CONCLUSIONS: In cross-sectional data from the KNHANES, blood Cd levels were significantly higher among those with a low income and less formal education. Smoking history contributed to, but did not fully explain, these associations.

키워드

Cadmium; Smoking; Socioeconomic status; Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
원문 및 링크아웃 정보
 
등재저널 정보