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The Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Questionnaire in Adolescents: What Is the Best Cutoff Score?

 ( Artanti Dian ) - University of Indonesia Faculty of Medicine Department of Child Health

 ( Hegar Badriul ) - University of Indonesia Faculty of Medicine Department of Child Health
 ( Kaswandani Nastiti ) - University of Indonesia Faculty of Medicine Department of Child Health
 ( Soedjatmiko ) - University of Indonesia Faculty of Medicine Department of Child Health
 ( Prayitno Ari ) - University of Indonesia Faculty of Medicine Department of Child Health
 ( Devaera Yoga ) - University of Indonesia Faculty of Medicine Department of Child Health
 ( Vandenplas Yvan ) - Vrije Universiteit Brussel Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel Kidz Health Castle

Abstract


Background: A self-assessment questionnaire, the GERD-Questionnaire (GERD-Q) was used to determine the prevalence of GERD in adolescents, describe the related factors, and determine the impact on quality of life (QoL).

Methods: The incidence of GERD was evaluated using the GERD-Q in adolescents aged 12?18 years. The Pediatric Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Symptom Questionnaire and Quality of Life Questionnaire (PGSQ-A) for adolescents were additionally administered. Some factors considered related to GERD were also evaluated.

Results: The 520 adolescents were included. The prevalence of suspected GERD, according to a GERD-Q cutoff score of ≥7 was 32.9%, and those drinking soda were 1.7 times more likely to have GERD (95% confidence interval, 1.3?2.2; p<0.001). However, soda consumption was not a risk factor for development of GERD symptoms. Applying a cutoff score of ≥8, only 10.9% of the participants had a positive GERD score, but the association with soda consumption persisted. The median PGSQ-A score in subjects suspected of GERD was 8 (range 0?37) on weekends and 1 (range 0?17) during weekdays (p<0.001) compared to those not suspected of GERD, with a median of 2 (range 0?27) during weekends and 0 (range 0?10) during weekdays. Heartburn, regurgitation, and extraesophageal symptoms correlated significantly with QoL (p<0.001).

Conclusion: The prevalence of suspected GERD in adolescents was 32.9% or 10.9%, depending on the cutoff score used. There was a statistically significant difference in PGSQ-A scores between the subjects suspected or not of GERD, indicating an impaired QoL.

키워드

Gastroesophageal reflux disease; Questionnaire; Quality of life; Adolescent
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