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Clinical Application of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Neonates

Neonatal Medicine 2019년 26권 3호 p.121 ~ 127
 ( Jeon Ga-Won ) - Inje University College of Medicine Inje University Busan Paik Hospital Department of Pediatrics

Abstract


The incidence of cerebral palsy has not decreased despite advances in neonatal care. Preterm infants are at a high risk of cerebral palsy. Moreover, preterm infants might experience permanent neurological sequelae due to injury in the preterm brain. Although the etiology of preterm brain injury is not fully understood, preterm brain injury is strongly associated with abnormal cerebral perfusion and oxygenation. Monitoring systemic blood pressure or arterial oxygen saturation using pulse oximetry is not enough to guarantee proper cerebral perfusion or oxygenation. Early detection of improper cerebral perfusion can prevent irreversible cerebral damage. To decrease brain injury through the early detection of under-perfusion and deoxygenation, other diagnostic modalities are needed. Near-infrared spectroscopy can continuously and noninvasively monitor regional oxygen saturation (rSO2), which reflects the perfusion and oxygenation status of tissues at bedside. Near-infrared spectroscopy represents a balance between tissue oxygen supply and demand. Cerebral rSO2 monitoring has been used most frequently in neonatal cardiac surgery to monitor cerebral oxygenation and prevent hypoxic damage or shock. Recently, cerebral, renal, or splanchnic rSO2 in neonates is frequently monitored. The progression of a disease, brain injury, and death can be prevented by detecting changes in rSO2 values using near-infrared spectroscopy. In this article, the basic principles, usefulness, and applications of near-infrared spectroscopy in neonates are discussed.

키워드

Cerebrovascular circulation; Spectroscopy, near-infrared; Infant, newborn; Infant, premature; Splanchnic circulation
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