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Neurogenic effect of exercise via the thioredoxin-1/ extracellular regulated kinase/β-catenin signaling pathway mediated by β2-adrenergic receptors in chronically stressed dentate gyrus

Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry 2019년 23권 3호 p.13 ~ 21
 ( Kim Mun-Hee ) - Korea National Sport University Department of Physical Education

 ( Leem Yea-Hyun ) - Ewha Womans University Department of Molecular Medicine

Abstract


Purpose: Chronic stress is a precipitating factor for depression, whereas exercise is beneficial for both the mood and cognitive process. The current study demonstrates the anti-depressive effects of regular exercise and the mechanisms linked to hippocampal neurogenesis.

Methods: Mice were subjected to 14 consecutive days of restraint, followed by 3 weeks of treadmill running, and were then subjected to behavioral tests that included the forced swimming and Y-maze tests. Protein levels were assessed using western blot analysis and newborn cells were detected using 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU).

Results: Three weeks of treadmill running ameliorated the behavioral depression caused by 14 days of continuous restraint stress. The exercise regimen enhanced BrdU-labeled cells and class III β-tubulin levels in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, as well as those of thioredoxin-1 (TRX-1) and synaptosomal β2-adrenergic receptors (β2-AR) under stress. In vitro experiments involving treatment with recombinant human TRX-1 (rhTRX-1) augmented the levels of phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), nuclear β-catenin, and proliferating cell nuclear antigens, which were previously inhibited by U0216 and FH535 (inhibitors of ERK1/2 and β-catenin/T cell factor-mediated transcription, respectively). The hippocampal neurogenesis elicited by a 7-day exercise regimen was abolished by a selective inhibitor of β2-AR, butoxamine.

Conclusion: These results suggest that TRX-1-mediated hippocampal neurogenesis by β2-AR function is a potential mechanism underlying the psychotropic effect of exercise.

키워드

repeated stress; exercise; neurogenesis; β2-adrenergic receptor; thioredoxin-1
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