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Pathologically Confirmed Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy with No Radiological Sign in a Patient with Early Onset Alzheimer's Disease

Yonsei Medical Journal 2018년 59권 6호 p.801 ~ 805
KMID : 0311120180590060801
 ( Kim Seung-Joo ) - Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine Samsung Medical Center Department of Neurology

 ( Seo You-Jeong ) - Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine Samsung Medical Center Department of Pathology
 ( Kim Hee-Jin ) - Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine Samsung Medical Center Department of Neurology
 ( Na Duk-L. ) - Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine Samsung Medical Center Department of Neurology
 ( Seo Sang-Won ) - Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine Samsung Medical Center Department of Neurology
 ( Kim Ye-Shin ) - Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine Samsung Medical Center Department of Neurology
 ( Suh Yeon-Lim ) - Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine Samsung Medical Center Department of Pathology

Abstract

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is associated with perivascular disruption, which is caused by progressive amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition in vessels. Previous autopsy studies have shown that the prevalence of CAA in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is 70% to 90%. CAA is principally characterized by restricted lobar microbleeds (MBs), which can be detected by gradient-echo T2* (GRE) and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). We herein report on a 62-year-old man who presented with 8 years of memory impairment. The apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype was ε4/ε4, and a brain GRE performed 28 months before death revealed mild atrophy and no MBs. At autopsy, the patient scored “A3, B3, C3” according to the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association guidelines; the patient thus exhibited a high level of AD neuropathological changes. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining for Aβ showed antibody accumulation and severe cerebral amyloid angiopathic changes in numerous vessels with amyloid deposits. Our case suggests that radiological CAA markers, such as cerebral microbleed (CMB) or cerebral superficial siderosis, may not suffice to detect amyloid angiopathy in cerebral vessels. CAA should therefore be considered as a combined pathology in APOE ε4 homozygotes with AD, even if such patients do not exhibit CMB on MRI.
KeyWords

Alzheimer's disease, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, pathology
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