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Performance of pneumococcal urinary antigen test in patients with community-onset pneumonia: a propensity score-matching study

Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 2020년 35권 3호 p.630 ~ 640
이종후 ( Lee Jong-Hoo ) - Jeju National University Hospital Department of Internal Medicine

송재욱 ( Song Jae-Uk ) - Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Department of Internal Medicine

Abstract


Background/Aims: Although pneumococcal urinary antigen tests (PUATs) have universally been used for the diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia, data on the efficacy of these exams are limited. The objective of our study was to investigate the clinical impact of the PUAT in patients with community-onset pneumonia (CO-pneumonia).

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with CO-pneumonia. Patients were classified according to their PUAT results and were matched using the propensity score-matching method. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality.

Results: A total of 1,257 patients were identified and 163 (13.0%) demonstrated positive PUAT results. The sensitivity and specificity values of PUAT for overall pneumococcal pneumonia were 56.5% and 91.4%, respectively. In the full cohort, there were no significant differences in 30-day mortality between the two groups (6.1% in the positive PUAT group vs. 8.2% in the negative PUAT group, p = 0.357). However, in the propensity-matched cohort, the 30-day mortality rates were lower in the positive PUAT group (5.6% vs. 17.4%, p = 0.001). With respect to secondary outcomes, the proportion of patients with potentially drug-resistant pathogens, changes in antibiotics, and failure rates of initial antibiotic therapy were significantly lower in the positive PUAT group than in the negative PUAT group of the propensity-matched cohort.

Conclusions: We found that the sensitivity of the index test was low and specificity was high in this clinical setting. And our findings suggest that positive PUAT results may be associated with favorable clinical outcomes in patients with CO-pneumonia.

키워드

Pneumonia; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Urinalysis; Antigens; Mortality
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