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Distinct functions of eosinophils in severe asthma with type 2 phenotype: clinical implications

Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 2020년 35권 4호 p.823 ~ 833
최영우 ( Choi Young-Woo ) - Ajou University School of Medicine Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

 ( Sim So-Yoon ) - Ajou University School of Medicine Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
박해심 ( Park Hae-Sim ) - Ajou University School of Medicine Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

Abstract


Asthma is commonly recognized as a heterogeneous condition with a complex pathophysiology. With advances in the development of multiple medications for patients with asthma, most asthma symptoms are well managed. Nevertheless, 5% to 10% of adult asthmatic patients (called severe asthma) are in uncontrolled or partially controlled status despite intensive treatment. Especially, severe eosinophilic asthma is one of the severe asthma phenotypes characterized by eosinophilia in sputum/blood driven by type 2 immune responses. Eosinophils have been widely accepted as a central effector cell in the lungs. Some evidence has demonstrated that persistent eosinophilia in upper and lower airway mucosa contributes to asthma severity by producing various mediators including cytokines, chemokines and granule proteins. Moreover, extracellular traps released from eosinophils have been revealed to enhance type 2 inflammation in patients with severe asthma. These novel molecules have the ability to induce airway inf lammation and hyperresponsiveness through enhancing innate and type 2 immune responses. In this review, we highlight recent insight into the function of eosinophil extracellular traps in patients with severe asthma. In addition, the role of eosinophil extracellular vesicles in severe asthma is also proposed. Finally, current biologics are suggested as a potential strategy for effective management of severe eosinophilic asthma.

키워드

Asthma; Eosinophils; Therapeutics
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