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Tips for troublesome sample-size calculation

대한마취과학회지 2020년 73권 2호 p.114 ~ 120
인준용 ( In Jun-Yong ) - Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

강현 ( Kang Hyun ) - Chung-Ang University College of Medicine Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
김종해 ( Kim Jong-Hae ) - Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
김태균 ( Kim Tae-Kyun ) - Pusan National University School of Medicine Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
안은진 ( Ahn Eun-Jin ) - Inje University Seoul Paik Hospital Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
이동규 ( Lee Dong-Kyu ) - Korea University College of Medicine Guro Hospital Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
이상석 ( Lee Sang-Seok ) - Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
박재홍 ( Park Jae-Hong ) - Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Abstract


Properly set sample size is one of the important factors for scientific and persuasive research. The sample size that can guarantee both clinically significant differences and adequate power in the phenomena of interest to the investigator, without causing excessive financial or medical considerations, will always be the object of concern. In this paper, we reviewed the essential factors for sample size calculation. We described the primary endpoints that are the main concern of the study and the basis for calculating sample size, the statistics used to analyze the primary endpoints, type I error and power, the effect size and the rationale. It also included a method of calculating the adjusted sample size considering the dropout rate inevitably occurring during the research. Finally, examples regarding sample size calculation that are appropriately and incorrectly described in the published papers are presented with explanations.

키워드

Biostatistics; Effect size; Independent t-test; Power; P value; Sample size
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