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Nicotine dependence and the International Association for the Study of Pain neuropathic pain grade in patients with chronic low back pain and radicular pain: is there an association?

Korean Journal of Pain 2020년 33권 4호 p.359 ~ 377
Schembri Emanuel, Massalha Victoria, Spiteri Karl, Camilleri Liberato, Lungaro-Mifsud Stephen,
소속 상세정보
 ( Schembri Emanuel ) - Karin Grech Hospital
 ( Massalha Victoria ) - Ministry for Health Physiotherapy Services
 ( Spiteri Karl ) - St Vincent de Paul Long Term Care Facility Department of Physiotherapy
 ( Camilleri Liberato ) - University of Malta Faculty of Science Department of Statistics and Operations Research
 ( Lungaro-Mifsud Stephen ) - University of Malta Faculty of Health Sciences Department of Physiotherapy

Abstract


Background: This study investigated whether current smoking and a higher nicotine dependency were associated with chronic low back pain (LBP), lumbar related leg pain (sciatica) and/or radicular neuropathic pain.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 patients (mean age, 60.1 ± 13.1 yr). Demographic data, the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) neuropathic pain grade, STarT Back tool, and the Fagerstrom test were completed. A control group (n = 50) was recruited.

Results: There was a significant difference between current smokers and nonsmokers in the chronic LBP group in the mean pain score (P = 0.025), total STarT Back score (P = 0.015), worst pain location (P = 0.020), most distal pain radiation (P = 0.042), and in the IASP neuropathic pain grade (P = 0.026). There was a significant difference in the mean Fagerstrom score between the four IASP neuropathic pain grades (P = 0.005). Current smoking yielded an odds ratio (OR) of 3.071 (P = 0.011) for developing chronic LBP and sciatica, and an OR of 4.028 (P = 0.002) for obtaining an IASP “definite/probable” neuropathic pain grade, for both cohorts. The likelihood for chronic LBP and sciatica increased by 40.9% (P = 0.007), while the likelihood for an IASP neuropathic grade of “definite/probable” increased by 50.8% (P = 0.002), for both cohorts, for every one unit increase in the Fagerstrom score.

Conclusions: A current smoking status and higher nicotine dependence increase the odds for chronic LBP, sciatica and radicular neuropathic pain.

키워드

Chronic Pain; Cross-Sectional Studies; Low Back Pain; Neuralgia; Nicotine; Non-Smokers; Radiculopathy; Smoking; Tobacco Use Disorder

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