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전립샘 특이항원을 이용한 국가암 선별 검사의 당위성

Relevance of nationwide prostate specific antigen screening test for prostate cancer

대한의사협회지 2020년 63권 11호 p.652 ~ 658
고영휘, 이영구,
소속 상세정보
고영휘 ( Ko Young-Hwii ) - Yeungnam University College of Medicine Department of Urology
이영구 ( Lee Young-Goo ) - Hallym University Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital Department of Urology

Abstract


The serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening test plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa), especially for early detection, before symptoms of systemic spread. Even though clinical trials for the PSA screening test have demonstrated limited benefits with regard to patient survival, recent trends have shown a continuous decrease in the PCa mortality rate in Western countries. In many Asian countries where PSA screening has not yet been widely adopted, the screening strategy reduces the metastatic spread. While PCa became the 10th most common malignant disease in the Korean male population in 2000, recent national reports indicate that its increase in the last two decades have now made it the third most popular malignant condition. Due to the different epidemiologic background and limited social awareness of PCa compared to Western countries, the PSA screening test was not routinely performed in Korea, in contrast with other prevalent malignant diseases such as stomach, colon, and lung cancers. Therefore, only about a quarter of the patients newly diagnosed with PCa in Korea were found to have undergone repeated PSA screening. However, the screened population showed a higher probability of local rather than systemic treatment, which reflects an earlier disease stage at the time of diagnosis in comparison with their non-screened counterparts. Given the relatively high survival rate of PCa and the increasing lifespan of Korean males, the increase of PCa will accelerate, suggesting the clinical relevance of PSA screening as part of regular checkups for Korean males.

키워드

전립샘암; 암선별검사; 전립샘특이항원; 역학
Prostatic neoplasms; Early detection of cancer; Prostate-specific antigen; Epidemiology

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