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Natural Occurrence of Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus Species and Aflatoxins in Traditional Korean Fermentation Starters, Meju and Nuruk

한국식품위생안전성학회지 2020년 35권 5호 p.438 ~ 446
우소영, 이상유, Tian Fei, 정아영, 유차니, 강승윤, 전향숙,
소속 상세정보
우소영 ( Woo So-Young ) - Chung-Ang University School of Food Science and Technology Advanced Food Safety Research Group
이상유 ( Lee Sang-Yoo ) - Chung-Ang University School of Food Science and Technology Advanced Food Safety Research Group
 ( Tian Fei ) - Chung-Ang University School of Food Science and Technology Advanced Food Safety Research Group
정아영 ( Jeong A-Yeong ) - Chung-Ang University School of Food Science and Technology Advanced Food Safety Research Group
유차니 ( Yoo Cha-Nee ) - Chung-Ang University School of Food Science and Technology Advanced Food Safety Research Group
강승윤 ( Kang Seung-Yoon ) - Chung-Ang University School of Food Science and Technology Advanced Food Safety Research Group
전향숙 ( Chun Hyang-Sook ) - Chung-Ang University School of Food Science and Technology Advanced Food Safety Research Group

Abstract


Meju and nuruk (respectively soybean and malt) are traditional Korean fermentation starters that are vulnerable to contamination by harmful microorganisms such as aflatoxigenic fungi and their associated aflatoxins (AFs).
In this study, Aspergillus spp. were isolated and identified from a total of 57 meju and 18 nuruk samples collected from Korean markets. Their potential aflatoxigenicity was investigated by examining the presence of three aflatoxin biosynthetic genes (aflO, aflP, and aflR) using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assays. Thereafter, aflatoxin production of isolates and the natural occurrence of AFs in meju and nuruk samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A total of 177 Aspergillus isolates were identified and 130 isolates were obtained from meju samples. Of these, 25 isolates (19.2%) contained all three aflatoxin biosynthetic genes, and five (20%) of these isolates produced aflatoxins. Forty-seven of the Aspergillus isolates were obtained from nuruk samples, five of which (10.6%) expressed all three AF biosynthetic genes; however, none of these strains produced AFs. HPLC analysis showed that 88% (51/58) of the meju samples and 39% (7/18) of nuruk samples were not contaminated with AFs (below limit of detection). Among the isolates isolated from meju and nuruk, there were aflatoxigenic strains containing all three aflatoxin biosynthetic genes or producing aflatoxin in medium, but the frequency of aflatoxin contamination was low in the meju and nuruk samples.

키워드

Aflatoxin; Fungal isolation; Aflatoxigenicity; Meju; Nuruk

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