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Vitamin D and Male Fertility: An Updated Review

The World Journal of Men′s Health 2020년 38권 2호 p.164 ~ 177
Cito Gianmartin, Cocci Andrea, Micelli Elisabetta, Gabutti Alejandro, Russo Giorgio Ivan, Coccia Maria Elisabetta, Franco Giorgio, Serni Sergio, Carini Marco, Natali Alessandro,
소속 상세정보
 ( Cito Gianmartin ) - University of Florence Careggi Hospital Department of Urology
 ( Cocci Andrea ) - University of Florence Careggi Hospital Department of Urology
 ( Micelli Elisabetta ) - University of Pisa Santa Chiara Hospital Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
 ( Gabutti Alejandro ) - Salvador Zubiran National Institute of Health Sciences and Nutrition Department of Radiology
 ( Russo Giorgio Ivan ) - University of Catania Department of Urology
 ( Coccia Maria Elisabetta ) - University of Florence Careggi Hospital Assisted Reproductive Technology Centre
 ( Franco Giorgio ) - La Sapienza University of Rome Department of Urology
 ( Serni Sergio ) - University of Florence Careggi Hospital Department of Urology
 ( Carini Marco ) - University of Florence Careggi Hospital Department of Urology
 ( Natali Alessandro ) - University of Florence Careggi Hospital Department of Urology

Abstract


To date, the key role of vitamin D in male reproductive system has been suggested, since the expression of vitamin D receptors and metabolizing enzymes was demonstrated in the testis and spermatozoa. Nevertheless, a general consensus about the role of vitamin D in male fertility is still debated. The aim of this review is to provide an updated systematic revision of the current available literature, discussing the experimental and clinical evidence on the role of vitamin D in the regulation of testis hormone production, seminal parameters and male fertility. The consequences of vitamin D deficiency on serum levels of testicular hormones have been analysed by several observational and interventional studies, with controversial results. Equally, the experimental researches not were able to state a certain relationship between vitamin D status and testis hormone production. Possible bias, including age, body mass index, and baseline vitamin D status justified the differences among studies. As well as concerning the effect of vitamin D on semen parameters, most of the studies agreed in the possibility that vitamin D might have a positive effect on human male fertility potential, particularly through better sperm motility. Regarding pregnancy outcomes, normal level of vitamin D seems to be related to better pregnancies. However, all the previous studies displayed a wide heterogeneity in study design, population, methodology, and cut off values used for the evaluation of vitamin D status. Future studies are needed to better clarify the exact role of vitamin D on hormonal and seminal panel in both fertile and infertile men.

키워드

Male infertility; Reproduction; Semen quality; Vitamin D

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