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Male Fertility and the COVID-19 Pandemic: Systematic Review of the Literature

The World Journal of Men′s Health 2020년 38권 4호 p.506 ~ 520
Khalili Mohammad Ali, Leisegang Kristian, Majzoub Ahmad, Finelli Renata, Selvam Manesh Kumar Panner, Henkel Ralf, Mojgan Moshrefi, Agarwal Ashok,
소속 상세정보
 ( Khalili Mohammad Ali ) - Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences Yazd Reproductive Sciences Institute
 ( Leisegang Kristian ) - University of Western Cape Faculty of Community and Health Sciences School of Natural Medicine
 ( Majzoub Ahmad ) - Hamad Medical Corporation Department of Urology
 ( Finelli Renata ) - Cleveland Clinic American Center for Reproductive Medicine
 ( Selvam Manesh Kumar Panner ) - Cleveland Clinic American Center for Reproductive Medicine
 ( Henkel Ralf ) - Imperial College London Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction
 ( Mojgan Moshrefi ) - Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences Yazd Reproductive Sciences Institute
 ( Agarwal Ashok ) - Cleveland Clinic American Center for Reproductive Medicine

Abstract


Purpose: Since its discovery in December 2019, the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has spread globally, causing the current COVID-19 (coronavirus disease-19) pandemic. As there is an increase of infections in the male population, concerns have emerged about the potential impact of COVID-19 on male reproductive organs and male fertility. Therefore, this study systematically investigates the current evidence of SARS-CoV-2 impact on male reproduction and pregnancy outcomes, discussing them in light of the evidence published on other coronaviruses.

Materials and Methods: Literature search was carried out according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 24 original articles were included for the analysis, investigating the effects of the infection on semen parameters, male reproductive hormones, and pregnancy outcomes. Further, a Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats (SWOT) analysis was conducted based on the available evidence linking the virus with male reproduction and conception.

Results: Although there is limited data, viral mRNA has been identified in semen of infected men, with some evidence of altered seminal parameters. Low testosterone and dihydrotestosterone with raised luteinizing hormone has been reported as well as preterm delivery in pregnant women; however, data regarding vertical transmission remains contradictory and inconclusive.

Conclusions: The recent literature provides evidence that male gonads may be potentially vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection, recommending caution to pregnant women and couples planning natural pregnancy or assisted reproduction.

키워드

COVID-19; Infertility, male; Pregnancy; Semen; Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2

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