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History of the Photon Beam Dose Calculation Algorithm in Radiation Treatment Planning System

Progress in Medical Physics 2020년 31권 3호 p.54 ~ 62
김동욱, 박광우, 김호진, 김진성,
소속 상세정보
김동욱 ( Kim Dong-Wook ) - Yonsei University College of Medicine Yonsei Cancer Center Department of Radiation Oncology
박광우 ( Park Kwang-Woo ) - Yonsei University College of Medicine Yonsei Cancer Center Department of Radiation Oncology
김호진 ( Kim Ho-Jin ) - Yonsei University College of Medicine Yonsei Cancer Center Department of Radiation Oncology
김진성 ( Kim Jin-Sung ) - Yonsei University College of Medicine Yonsei Cancer Center Department of Radiation Oncology

Abstract


Dose calculation algorithms play an important role in radiation therapy and are even the basis for optimizing treatment plans, an important feature in the development of complex treatment technologies such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy. We reviewed the past and current status of dose calculation algorithms used in the treatment planning system for radiation therapy. The radiation-calculating dose calculation algorithm can be broadly classified into three main groups based on the mechanisms used: (1) factor-based, (2) model-based, and (3) principlebased. Factor-based algorithms are a type of empirical dose calculation that interpolates or extrapolates the dose in some basic measurements. Model-based algorithms, represented by the pencil beam convolution, analytical anisotropic, and collapse cone convolution algorithms, use a simplified physical process by using a convolution equation that convolutes the primary photon energy fluence with a kernel. Model-based algorithms allowing side scattering when beams are transmitted to the heterogeneous media provide more precise dose calculation results than correction-based algorithms. Principle-based algorithms, represented by Monte Carlo dose calculations, simulate all real physical processes involving beam particles during transportation; therefore, dose calculations are accurate but time consuming. For approximately 70 years, through the development of dose calculation algorithms and computing technology, the accuracy of dose calculation seems close to our clinical needs. Next-generation dose calculation algorithms are expected to include biologically equivalent doses or biologically effective doses, and doctors expect to be able to use them to improve the quality of treatment in the near future.

키워드

Dose; Algorithm; Radiation; Oncology; Planning

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