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마스크의 인증기준 비교와 바이러스 여과효율에 대한 고찰

Comparisons of Certification Standards for Mask and Review on Filtration Efficiency for Viruses

한국산업보건학회지 2020년 30권 2호 p.109 ~ 123
윤충식, 고슬비, 박지훈,
소속 상세정보
윤충식 ( Yoon Chung-Sik ) - Seoul National University Institute of Health and Environment
고슬비 ( Go Sul-Bee ) - Seoul National University Graduate School of Public Health Department of Environmental Health Sciences
박지훈 ( Park Ji-Hoon ) - Korea Institute of Science and Technology Forschungsgesellschaft mbH Environmental Safety Group

Abstract


Objectives: The aims of this study were to review the standards and key components of the standards for disposable masks in Korea, the US, EU, Japan, and China and to evaluate the appropriateness of disposable masks during a virus pandemic.

Methods: We reviewed the standards in the above countries and compared their key elements for each standard. For the second purpose, systemic paper gathering using key words like ‘mask’, ‘respirator’ ‘virus’, and ‘coronavirus’ in the Pubmed search engine was performed. Fifty-three papers were selected and reviewed in regard to the appropriateness of test protocols with NaCl particles for virus filtration and the effectiveness against viruses.

Results: The standards for masks are largely divided into two categories: US standards and EU standards. In Korea, the Ministry of Employment and Labor adapted the EU standards for workers and the Health Masks adopted the Ministry of Employment and Labor standards by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. Regarding airborne viral infections, WHO emphasizes only droplet infection, while many studies have shown that small particles enter the air through coughing or sneezing, which increases the possibility of airborne infection. Compared to other particles, various factors such as airborne viability and the ability to replicate the virus in the body are further involved in the virus's airborne infection rate. Airborne infection is classified into absolute air infection, preferential air infection, and opportunistic air infection. The NaCl-certified N95 mask showed good filtration efficiency against viruses and NaCl particles were proved to be a surrogate material for viruses. From this, KF94 is also expected to be effective in blocking viruses.

Conclusion: The N95 test method could be used as a surrogate test method for virus filtration. N95-class masks have been found to effectively block viral infections in the air. However, surgical or medical masks are only partially effective against airborne virus infection though they could effectively block large droplet infection. However, most studies considered in this study targeted N95 in foreign countries and studies on masks actually used in Korea are very limited, so studies on microorganisms and reuse on domestic masks should be conducted in the future.

키워드

Coronavirus; droplet; filtration; infection; mask; NaCl; pandemic; particle; respirator; virus

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