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실제 3D 프린팅 작업장에서 발생하는 공기 중 유기화합물, 금속 및 입자특성 평가

Assessment of Emitted Volatile Organic Compounds, Metals and Characteristic of Particle in Commercial 3D Printing Service Workplace

한국산업보건학회지 2020년 30권 2호 p.153 ~ 162
김성호, 정은교, 김세동, 권지운,
소속 상세정보
김성호 ( Kim Sung-Ho ) - Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute
정은교 ( Chung Eun-Kyo ) - Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute
김세동 ( Kim Se-Dong ) - Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute
권지운 ( Kwon Ji-Woon ) - Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute

Abstract


Objectives: 3D printing technologies have become widely developed and are increasingly being used for a variety of purposes. Recently, the evaluation of 3D printing operations has been conducted through chamber test studies, and actual workplace studies have yet to be completed. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the emission of volatile organic compounds(VOCs), metals, and particles from printing operations at a workplace. This included monitoring conducted at a commercial 3D printing service workplace where the processes involved material extrusion, material jetting, binder jetting, vat photo polymerization, and powder bed fusion.

Methods: Area samples were collected with using a Tenax TA tube for VOC emission and MCE filter for metals in the workplace. For particle monitoring, Mini Particle Samplers(MPS) were also placed in the printer, indoor work area, and outdoor area. The objective was to analyze and identify particles’ size, morphology, and chemical composition using transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy(TEM-EDS) in the workplace.

Results: The monitoring revealed that the concentration of VOCs and metals generated during the 3D printing process was low. However, it also revealed that within the 3D printing area, the highest concentration of total volatile organic compounds(TVOC) was 4,164 ppb at the vat photopolymerization 3D printing workplace, and the lowest was 148 ppb at the material extrusion 3D printing workplace. For the metals monitoring, chromium, which, is carcinogenic for humans, was detected in the workplace. As a characteristic of the particles, nano-sized particles were also found during the monitoring, but most of them were agglomerated with large and small particles.

Conclusions: Based on the monitoring conducted at the commercial 3D printing operation, the results revealed that the concentration of VOCs and metals in the workplace were within Korea’s occupational exposure limits. However, due to the emission of nano-sized particles during 3D printing operations, it was recommended that the exposure to VOCs and metals in the workplace should be minimized out of concern for workers’ health. It was also shown that the characteristics of particles emitted from 3D printing operations may spread widely within an indoor workplace.

키워드

metals; particle; 3D printer; 3D printing workplace; VOCs

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