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From intestinal dysbiosis to alcohol-associated liver disease

Clinical and Molecular Hepatology 2020년 26권 4호 p.595 ~ 605
Mendes Beatriz Garcia, Schnabl Bernd,
소속 상세정보
 ( Mendes Beatriz Garcia ) - Federal University of Santa Catarina Department of Clinical Analysis
 ( Schnabl Bernd ) - University of California San Diego Department of Medicine

Abstract


Alcohol-associated intestinal dysbiosis and bacterial overgrowth can lead to a dysregulation of tryptophan metabolism and lower production of indoles. Several of these indole derivatives are aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands that, in turn, are involved in antimicrobial defense via induction of interleukin-22 (IL-22). IL-22 increases the expression of intestinal regenerating islet-derived 3 (Reg3) lectins, which maintain low bacterial colonization of the inner mucus layer and reduce bacterial translocation to the liver. Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with reduced intestinal expression of Reg3β and Reg3γ, increased numbers of mucosa-associated bacteria and bacterial translocation. Translocated microbial products and viable bacteria reach the liver and activate the innate immune system. Release of inflammatory molecules promotes inflammation, contributes to hepatocyte death and results in a fibrotic response. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which chronic alcohol intake changes the gut microbiota and contributes to alcohol-associated liver disease by changing microbial-derived metabolites.

키워드

Dysbiosis; Tryptophan; Aryl hydrocarbon receptor; Interleukin-22; Alcohol-associated liver disease

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