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Optimizing Stem Cell Therapy after Ischemic Brain Injury

Journal of Stroke 2020년 22권 3호 p.286 ~ 305
Zhang Shuai, Lachance Brittany Bolduc, Moiz Bilal, Jia Xiaofeng,
소속 상세정보
 ( Zhang Shuai ) - University of Maryland School of Medicine Department of Neurosurgery
 ( Lachance Brittany Bolduc ) - University of Maryland School of Medicine Department of Neurology
 ( Moiz Bilal ) - University of Maryland School of Medicine Department of Neurosurgery
 ( Jia Xiaofeng ) - University of Maryland School of Medicine Department of Neurosurgery

Abstract


Stem cells have been used for regenerative and therapeutic purposes in a variety of diseases. In ischemic brain injury, preclinical studies have been promising, but have failed to translate results to clinical trials. We aimed to explore the application of stem cells after ischemic brain injury by focusing on topics such as delivery routes, regeneration efficacy, adverse effects, and in vivo potential optimization. PUBMED and Web of Science were searched for the latest studies examining stem cell therapy applications in ischemic brain injury, particularly after stroke or cardiac arrest, with a focus on studies addressing delivery optimization, stem cell type comparison, or translational aspects. Other studies providing further understanding or potential contributions to ischemic brain injury treatment were also included. Multiple stem cell types have been investigated in ischemic brain injury treatment, with a strong literature base in the treatment of stroke. Studies have suggested that stem cell administration after ischemic brain injury exerts paracrine effects via growth factor release, blood-brain barrier integrity protection, and allows for exosome release for ischemic injury mitigation. To date, limited studies have investigated these therapeutic mechanisms in the setting of cardiac arrest or therapeutic hypothermia. Several delivery modalities are available, each with limitations regarding invasiveness and safety outcomes. Intranasal delivery presents a potentially improved mechanism, and hypoxic conditioning offers a potential stem cell therapy optimization strategy for ischemic brain injury. The use of stem cells to treat ischemic brain injury in clinical trials is in its early phase; however, increasing preclinical evidence suggests that stem cells can contribute to the down-regulation of inflammatory phenotypes and regeneration following injury. The safety and the tolerability profile of stem cells have been confirmed, and their potent therapeutic effects make them powerful therapeutic agents for ischemic brain injury patients.

키워드

Brain ischemia; Stem cells; Brain regeneration; Stem cell transplantation; Cardiac arrest; Stroke

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