잠시만 기다려 주세요. 로딩중입니다.

Symbiotic microoiganisms in aphids (Homoptera, Insecta): A secret of one thriving insect group

Animal Cells and Systems 2001년 5권 3호 p.163 ~ 177
Ishikawa Hajime,
소속 상세정보
 ( Ishikawa Hajime ) - University of Tokyo Graduate School of Science Department of Biological Sciences

Abstract


Most, if not all, aphids harbor intracellular bacterial symbionts, called Buchnera, in their bacteriocytes, huge cells differentiated for this purpose. The association between Buchnera and aphids is so intimate, mutualistic and obligate that neither of them can any longer reproduce independently. Buchnera are vertically transmitted through generations of the host insects. Evidence suggests that Buchnera were acquired by a common ancestor of aphids 160?280 million years ago, and have been diversified, since then, in parallel with their aphid hosts. Molecular phylogenetic analyses indicate that Buchnera belong to the g subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Although Buchnera are close relatives of Escherichia coli, they contain more than 100 genomic copies per cell, and their genome size is only one seventh that of E. coli. The complete genome sequence of Buchnera revealed that their gene repertoire is quite different from those of parasitic bacteria such as Mycoplasma, Rickettsia and Chlamydia, though their genome sizes have been reduced to a similar extent. Whereas these parasitic bacteria have lost most genes for the biosynthesis of amino acids, Buchnera retain many of them. In particular, Buchnera's gene repertoire is characteristic in the richness of the genes for the biosynthesis of essential amino acids that the eukaryotic hosts are not able to synthesize, reflecting a nutritional role played by these symbionts. Buchnera, when housed in the bacteriocyte, selectively synthesize a large amount of symbionin, which is a homolog of GroEL, the major stress protein of E. coli. Symbionin not only functions as molecular chape rone, like GroEL, but also has evolutionarily acquired the phosphotransferase activity through amino acid substitutions. Aphids usually profit from Buchnera's fuction as a nutritional supplier and, when faced with an emergency, consume the biomass of Buchnera cells as nutrient reserves.

키워드

Intraceflular symbiosis; Molecular evolution; Nitrogen recycling; Genome; Gene repertoire; Complementarity; Chaperone; Nutrient reserves

원문 및 링크아웃 정보

등재저널 정보