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좌측 유방암 방사선치료에서 CPAP(Continuous Positive Airway Pressure)의 유용성 평가

The efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for patient with left breast can

대한방사선치료학회지 2019년 31권 2호 p.43 ~ 49
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Abstract

목 적: 본 연구는 좌측 유방암 방사선치료에서 환자 호흡방법에 따른 영향에 대하여 치료계획을 통해 비교 분석하고, 깊은 들숨 호흡 정지법(deep inspiration breath hold, DIBH)에서 지속적 기도 양압(continuous positive airway, CPAP)의 유용성을 평가하고자 하였다.

대상 및 방법: 좌측 유방암 환자 총 10명을 대상으로 하였다. 모의치료에서 총 세 가지 호흡법을 적용하여 영상을 획득하였다: 자유호흡법(free breathing, FB); 깊은 들숨 호흡 정지법(DIBH); 들숨 호흡 정지법(inspiration breath hold, IBH); 여기서 DIBH에서는 자가호흡확인 기구인 abches(APEX, Japan)와 IBH에서는 CPAP가 적용되었다. 치료계획은 Ray Station(5.0.2.35, Sweden)을 이용하였고, 용적 강도변조 회전방사선치료법(volumetric modulated arc therapy, VMAT) one partial Arc을 환자당 동일 각도로 적용하였다. 치료계획용적(planning target volume, PTV)의 총 처방선량은 50Gy(2Gy/fx)로 설정하였다. 치료계획분석은 PTV의 95% dose(D95), 처방선량지수(conformity index, CI)와 선량균질지수(homogeneity index, HI)를 비교 분석하였다. 손상위험장기(Organ At Risk, OAR)인 폐, 심장, 왼내림 앞가지동맥(left anterior descending artery, LAD)을 분석하였다.

결 과: 동축의 폐(ipsilateral lung)의 평균용적 FB, DIBH(Abches), IBH(CPAP)에서 각각 1245.58±301.31㎤, 1790.09±362.43㎤, 1775.44±476.71㎤였다. PTV의 평균 D95는 각각 46.67±1.89Gy, 46.85±1.72Gy, 46.97±2.34Gy였다. 평균 CI(HI)는 각각 0.95±0.02(0.91±0.01), 0.96±0.02(0.90±0.01), 0.95±0.02(0.92±0.02)였다. 폐 전체의 V20(동측 폐)은 각각 10.74±4.50%(20.45±8.65%), 8.29±3.14%(17.18±7.04%), 9.12±3.29%(18.85±7.85%)였다. 심장의 평균 선량(Dmean)은 각각 7.82±1.27Gy, 6.10±1.27Gy, 5.67±1.56Gy였다. LAD의 최대선량(Dmax)은 각각 20.41±7.56Gy, 14.88±3.57Gy, 14.96±2.81Gy였다. LAD에서 흉벽(Chest wall)까지 평균거리는 각각 11.33±4.70mm, 22.40±6.01mm, 20.14±6.23mm였다.

결 론: DIBH와 CPAP에서 FB보다 폐 용적이 커짐으로써, 방사선치료영역인 흉벽과 심장의 거리가 멀어지는 효과 때문에 LAD의 선량을 감소시킬 수 있다. 좌측 유방암 방사선치료 시 DIBH방법의 대체방안으로 CPAP은 임상적 활용도가 높을 것으로 사료된다.

Purpose: This study examined changes in the position of the heat and lungs depending on the patient's breathing method during left breast cancer radiotherapy and used treatment plans to compare the resulting radiation dose.

Materials and methods: The participants consisted of 10 patients with left breast cancer. A CT simulator(SIMENS SOMATOM AS, Germany) was used to obtain images when using three different breathing methods: free breathing(FB), deep inspiration breath hold(DIBH with Abches, DIBH), inspiration breath hold(IBH with CPAP, CPAP). A Ray Station(5.0.2.35, Sweden) was used for treatment planning, the treatment method was volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with one partial arc of the same angle, and the prescribed dose to the planning target volume (PTV) was a total dose of 50Gy(2Gy/day). In treatment plan analysis, the 95% dose (D95) to the PTV, the conformity index(CI), and the homogeneity index (HI) were compared. The lungs, heart, and left anterior descending artery (LAD) were selected as the organs at risk(OARs).

Results: The mean volume of the ipsilateral lung for FB, DIBH, and CPAP was 1245.58±301.31㎤, 1790.09±362.43 ㎤, 1775.44±476.71 ㎤. The mean D95 for the PTV was 46.67±1.89Gy, 46.85±1.72Gy, 46.97±23.4Gy, and the mean CI and HI were 0.95±0.02, 0.96±0.02, 0.95±0.02 and 0.91±0.01, 0.90±0.01, 0.92±0.02. The V20 of Whole Lung was 10.74±4.50%, 8.29±3.14%, 9.12±3.29% and The V20 of the ipsilateral lung was 20.45±8.65%, 17.18±7.04%, 18.85±7.85%, the Dmean of the heart was 7.82±1.27Gy, 6.10±1.27Gy, 5.67±1.56Gy, and the Dmax of the LAD was 20.41±7.56Gy, 14.88±3.57Gy, 14.96±2.81Gy. The distance from the thoracic wall to the LAD was measured to be 11.33±4.70mm, 22.40±6.01mm, 20.14±6.23mm.
Conclusion: During left breast cancer radiotherapy, the lung volume was 46.24% larger for DIBH than for FB, and 43.11% larger for CPAP than FB. The larger lung volume increases the distance between the thoracic wall and the heart. In this way, the LAD, which is one of the nearby OARs, can be more effectively protected while still satisfying the treatment plan. The lung volume was largest for DIBH, and the distance between the LAD and thoracic wall was also the greatest. However, when performing treatment with DIBH, the intra-fraction error cannot be ignored. Moreover, communication between the patient and the radiotherapist is also an important factor in DIBH treatment. When communication is problematic, or if the patient has difficulty holding their breath, we believe that CPAP could be used as an alternative to DIBH. In order to verify the clinical efficacy of CPAP, it will be necessary to perform long-term follow-up of a greater number of patients.

키워드

DIBH; CPAP; Left breast; Left Anterior Descending artery

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