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Classification and Management Algorithm for Postoperative Wound Complications Following Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion

Asian Spine Journal 2020년 14권 5호 p.673 ~ 681
Kanna Rishi Mugesh, Renjith Karukayil Ramakrishnan, Shetty Ajoy Prasad, Rajasekaran Shanmuganathan,
소속 상세정보
 ( Kanna Rishi Mugesh ) - Ganga Medical Centre and Hospital Pvt. Ltd. Department of Spine Surgery
 ( Renjith Karukayil Ramakrishnan ) - Ganga Medical Centre and Hospital Pvt. Ltd. Department of Spine Surgery
 ( Shetty Ajoy Prasad ) - Ganga Medical Centre and Hospital Pvt. Ltd. Department of Spine Surgery
 ( Rajasekaran Shanmuganathan ) - Ganga Medical Centre and Hospital Pvt. Ltd. Department of Spine Surgery

Abstract


Study Design: Retrospective study.

Purpose: Postoperative wound complications occurring after transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) are unique, as they can involve different tissue zones (subcutaneous, subfascial, osseous, peri-implant, and disc).

Overview of Literature: Management of postoperative infections occurring after TLIF remains controversial in the context of retention or removal of implants.

Methods: A total of 1,279 consecutive patients (1,520 segments) who underwent TLIF with a minimum follow-up of 1 year were analyzed. Patients with wound complications were classified anatomically into the following five types: type 1, suprafascial necrosis; type 2, wound dehiscence; type 3, pus around screws and rods; type 4, bone marrow edema; and type 5, pus in the disc space. Details pertaining to clinicoradiological and laboratory findings and management were also recorded.

Results: Of the 62 patients (4.8%) with wound complications, there were seven patients in type 1, 35 in type 2, 10 in type 3, four in type 4, and six in type 5. Patients in types 1 and 2 manifested delayed wound healing and were systemically well. In type 1, five patients were managed with resuturing and two were managed conservatively. In type 2, all patients had wound gaping and were managed by debridement, whereas three patients required vacuum-assisted closure. Patients in type 3 had severe back pain and fever, with demonstrable pus around the screw site. Tissue culture identified organisms in 90% of the patients. Patients in type 4 presented with increasing back pain, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed vertebral bone marrow edema. Those in type 5 had severe back pain and fever, with demonstrable pus in the disc space. Patients in types 3?5 required debridement, implant revision/retention, and long-term antibiotics.

Conclusions: The new anatomical classification of surgical site infections could help grade the severity of infection and provide tangible treatment guidelines, resulting in better infection clearance and patient outcomes.

키워드

Surgical site infection; Vertebral bone marrow edema; Classification

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