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Revisiting the Bacterial Phylum Composition in Metabolic Diseases Focused on Host Energy Metabolism

Diabetes & Metabolism Journal 2020년 44권 5호 p.658 ~ 667
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Abstract


Over a hundred billion bacteria are found in human intestines. This has emerged as an environmental factor in metabolic diseases, such as obesity and related diseases. The majority of these bacteria belong to two dominant phyla, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Since the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes increases in people with obesity and in various animal models, it has been assumed that phylum composition causes the increase in occurrence of metabolic diseases over the past decade. However, this assumption has been challenged by recent studies that have found even an opposite association of phylum composition within metabolic diseases. Moreover, the gut microbiota affects host energy metabolism in various ways including production of metabolites and interaction with host intestinal cells to regulate signaling pathways that affect energy metabolism. However, the direct effect of gut bacteria on host energy intake, such as energy consumption by the bacteria itself and its effects on intestinal energy absorption, has been underestimated. This review aims to discuss whether increased ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes is associated with the development of metabolic diseases, and whether energy competition between the bacteria and host is a missing part of the mechanism linking gut microbiota to metabolic diseases.

키워드

Energy metabolism; Etiology; Gastrointestinal microbiome; Intestinal absorption; Metabolic diseases

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