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Gaining New Biological and Therapeutic Applications into the Liver with 3D In Vitro Liver Models

Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 2020년 17권 6호 p.731 ~ 745
이상우, 정다정, 정기석,
소속 상세정보
이상우 ( Lee Sang-Woo ) - Asan Medical Center Asan Institute for Life Sciences Biomedical Engineering Research Center
정다정 ( Jung Da-Jung ) - Asan Medical Center Asan Institute for Life Sciences Biomedical Engineering Research Center
정기석 ( Jeong Gi-Seok ) - Asan Medical Center Asan Institute for Life Sciences Biomedical Engineering Research Center

Abstract


Background: Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures with architectural and biomechanical properties similar to those of natural tissue have been the focus for generating liver tissue. Microarchitectural organization is believed to be crucial to hepatic function, and 3D cell culture technologies have enabled the construction of tissue-like microenvironments, thereby leading to remarkable progress in vitro models of human tissue and organs. Recently, to recapitulate the 3D architecture of tissues, spheroids and organoids have become widely accepted as new practical tools for 3D organ modeling. Moreover, the combination of bioengineering approach offers the promise to more accurately model the tissue microenvironment of human organs. Indeed, the employment of sophisticated bioengineered liver models show long-term viability and functional enhancements in biochemical parameters and disease-orient outcome.

Results: Various 3D in vitro liver models have been proposed as a new generation of liver medicine. Likewise, new biomedical engineering approaches and platforms are available to more accurately replicate the in vivo 3D microarchitectures and functions of living organs. This review aims to highlight the recent 3D in vitro liver model systems, including micropatterning, spheroids, and organoids that are either scaffold-based or scaffold-free systems. Finally, we discuss a number of challenges that will need to be addressed moving forward in the field of liver tissue engineering for biomedical applications.

Conclusion: The ongoing development of biomedical engineering holds great promise for generating a 3D biomimetic liver model that recapitulates the physiological and pathological properties of the liver and has biomedical applications.

키워드

Liver; 3D in vitro liver model; Spheroids; Organoids

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