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White matter and neurological disorders

Archives of Pharmacal Research 2020년 43권 9호 p.920 ~ 931
배한규, 김태경, 석호영, 정상영, 조동규,
소속 상세정보
배한규 ( Bae Han-Gyu ) - Sungkyunkwan University School of Pharmacy
김태경 ( Kim Tai-Kyoung ) - Korea Polar Research Institute Division of Polar Life Sciences
석호영 ( Suk Ho-Young ) - Yeungnam University Department of Life Science
정상영 ( Jung Sang-Young ) - National University of Singapore Department of Physiology
조동규 ( Jo Dong-Gyu ) - Sungkyunkwan University School of Pharmacy

Abstract


The central nervous system is simply divided into two distinct anatomical regions based on the color of tissues, i.e. the gray and white matter. The gray matter is composed of neuronal cell bodies, glial cells, dendrites, immune cells, and the vascular system, while the white matter is composed of concentrated myelinated axonal fibers extending from neuronal soma and glial cells, such as oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. As neuronal cell bodies are located in the gray matter, great attention has been focused mainly on the gray matter regarding the understanding of the functions of the brain throughout the neurophysiological areas, leading to a scenario in which the function of the white matter is relatively underestimated or has not received much attention. However, increasing evidence shows that the white matter plays highly significant and pivotal functions in the brain based on the fact that its abnormalities are associated with numerous neurological diseases. In this review, we will broadly discuss the pathways and functions of myelination, which is one of the main processes that modulate the functions of the white matter, as well as the manner in which its abnormalities are related to neurological disorders.

키워드

White matter; Myelination; Neurological disorders; Alzheimer’s disease; Huntington’s disease; Multiple sclerosis

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