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The Effect of Instruction and Clinical Practice in Psychiartric Nursing on Nursing Students´ Attitudes Towark the Mental Illness and Mental Patients

간호학논집 - 연세대학교 1978년 3권 0호 p.1 ~ 15
소속 상세정보
박예숙/Park, Yea Sook

Abstract


The current psychiatric nursing emphasizes the interpersonal: aspects the nursing relationship, the repeated references to the therapeutic use of self and the therapeutic area as opposed to, custodial care of psychiatric patients.
In the course of psychiatric nursing the technique for developing a relationship with a patient and the way these techniques express attitudes and generate attitude in others is stressed.
It has become the responsibility of the mental health nursing educator to determine effective means of aiding the students in unlearning or in modifying past learned negative attitudes: toward mental illness and mental patients.
This study was done to determine changes in student nurses attitudes toward mental illness and mental patients during their psychiatric nursing course.
The subjects were 72 junior and 74 seniors student nurses. who were enrolled in 1973 at College of Nursing, Y Junior students were examined before and after instruction in psychiatric nursing and the senior before and after clinical practice in psychiatric nursing.
A questionnaire, a Korean translation of "opinions about Mental Illness Scale" by Cohen and Struening, 1962, was administered to student nurses. Within the test, five salient attitude dimensions underlying opinions about mental illness and mental patients were identified.
To determine the direction of attitudes toward the mental illness and mental patients: before and after the course in psychiatric nursing, a t-test- was: made on the means of the, subjects´ raw score on each of the five factors of the 0. M. I. Scales.
The results of the study are summarized as follow.
1) Attitudes of Benevolence (factor B) and Social Restrictive (factor D) toward the. mental illness and mental patients were increased significantly following the instruction in psychiatric nursing of junior students. In direction of change of these two factors, the Benevolence (factor B) showed positive attitude increased, but the Social Restrictive (factor D) showed negative attitudes increased.. Attitudes of Authoritarianism (factor A) toward mental illness and mental patients were reduced, and attitudes of Mental Health Ideology(factor C) and Interpersonal Etiology(factor E) showed positive attitudes to be increased, but not significant, at the end of instruction in psychiatric nursing.
2) In the senior student nurses attitudes of Authoritarianism(factor A) were reduced and. attitudes of Benevolence (factor B), Mental Health Ideology(factor C) and Interpersonal Etiology(factor E) were increased following clinical practice in psychiatric nursing, but only Benevolence (factor B) significantly. Attitudes of Social Restrictive (factor D) showed that negative attitude to be increased significantly following clinical practice.
3) There is no significant difference between the length of clinical practice in psychiatric nursing and the students attitudes toward mental illness and mental patients. Attitudes of students who had their experience during the school terms showed that attitudes of Authoritarianism (factor A), Benevolence (factor B), Mental Health Ideology(factor C) and Social Restrictive (factor D) changed in positive direction. Attitudes of students who had their experience during vacations showed that attitudes of Authoritarianism(factor A) and Benevolence (factor B) changed in a positive direction and Mental Health Ideology (factor C), Social Restrictive(factor B) and Interpersonal Etiology(factor E) in a negative direction.
4) There is no significant differences between clinical achievement and attitudes toward mental illness and mental patients following clinical practice of the student nurses. Upper achieving students changed attitudes of Authoritarianism (factor A), Benevolence (factor B) Social Restrictive (factor D) in positive direction and attitudes of Mental Health Ideology (factor C) and Interpersonal Etiology (factor E) in negative direction. Lower achieving students changed attitudes of Authoritarianism (factor A), Benevolence (factor B), Mental Health Ideology(factor C), and Interpersonal Etiology (factor h) in positive direction and attitudes of Social Restrictiveness (factor D) in negative direction.
The following suggestion are presented according to the results of the study.
1) A study is needed to investigate student nurses´ attitude changes toward mental illness and mental patients in various school which have different teaching content, method and environment.
2) A study is needed to compare the student nurses attitude change toward mental illness and mental patients and peer college students who have not had courses in psychiatric nursing.
3) A study is needed to investigate other medical personnel whose educational and social status are different.
4) A study is needed to clarify whether there is a similarity between teacher´s attitudes toward mental illness and mental patients and students attitudes.
5) A study is needed to clarify the significant difference statistically in changes, by defining mental illness and mental patients relative to severe psychotic disorders.
6) A study is needed investigate the relationship between attitudes toward mental illness and mental patient and clinical achievement, the evaluation form has to be established in validity and reliability.

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