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한국영아의 기질성 경향에 관한 연구

An Exploratory Study for Infant Temperament Measurement

간호학논집 - 연세대학교 1978년 3권 0호 p.17 ~ 33
심치정,
소속 상세정보
심치정 ( Shim Chi-Joung ) - 연세대학교 간호대학 소아간호학교실

Abstract


More than ever before the nurse today who is working with children is called upon to deal with psychological and behavioral problems of children. Formerly a great deal of time and energy was consumed in dealing with the physical aspects of the child illness but now there is a need for child´s psychological development. It is believed that early screening and detection of problems followed by anticipatory guidance would be very important for prevention of behavior problems.

Various developmental screening tools are now in use but there are no tools for evaluation of early infant behavior (infant temperament). W.B. Carey developed a tool for measuring infant temperament which is now in use.
The purpose of this study was to determine the general tendency of infant temperament of Koreans and to obtain information regarding. differences in temperament among different groups of infants so that the results can be used for standardization of infant temperament measurement in Korea.
The sample for this study was 270 healthy infants between the ages of 3 months -16 days and 8 months 15 days. Carey´s infant temperament questionnaire, consisting of 95 items which describe infant behavior style were translated into Korean and were given to the mothers of infants. After the infant temperament questionnaire was completed, each items score was assigned to one of the nine reactivity categories. According to the score of nine categories, infants were assigned to one of the 5 diagnostic clusters-of temperament (Easy, Intermediate low, Intermediate high, slow-to-warm-up, Difficult).
The result of the study were as follows;
1. The reliability of the total instrument was 0.80. The range was from 0.32 to 0.57 and the median was 0.29 These results were lower than the result which Carey obtained.
2. The mean value of the 6 categories was significantly lower in the Korean infant than in the infants which carey studied. Therefore it is recommended that the standard obtained in this study be used in measuring the temperament of Korean infants.
3. Using the standard obtained, the sample was subdivided into five clinical diagnostic groups as follows, easy 32.22%, intermediate low 41.85%, intermediate high 11.85%, slow-to-warm-up 4.81% and difficult 9.25%.
4. The correlation between the mothers´ general ratings of their babies in the nine temperament categories and the respective questionnaire scores was rather low. The lowest was r = 0.012 for distractibility and the highest was 4 = 0.4869 for rhythmically.
5. Infant from urban areas were more active, more approachable and more strong in their reaction compared to infants from rural areas. But there was no significant difference in the distribution of the diagnostic cluster of temperament between the two groups.
6. The age of the infant was significantly related to the activity level, approach and persistency of the infant Sex of the infant was related to the approach to stimuli and the birth order was related to distractibility.
7. Only 28.5% of the mothers complained about their babies temperament. These dealt mostly with sleeping problems and excessive crying.
8. Night-Waking was significantly more frequent in the difficult infant group compared with the easy and slow-to-warm-up infant groups.
On the basis of the result of this study the recommendation are as follows.
1. A study for the standardization of infant temperament measurement in Korea is necessary.
2. A study which combines the observation technique and questionnaire method in measuring infant temperament is needed to determine the cross validity.
3 A longitudinal study is recommended to determine the effects of infant temperament on later personality development.

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