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The frequency of defective genes in vif and vpr genes in 20 hemophiliacs is associated with Korean Red Ginseng and highly active antiretroviral therapy: the impact of lethal mutations in vif and vpr genes on HIV-1 evolution

Journal of Ginseng Research 2021년 45권 1호 p.149 ~ 155
조영걸, 김정은,
소속 상세정보
조영걸 ( Cho Young-Keol ) - University of Ulsan College of Medicine Department of Microbiology
김정은 ( Kim Jung-Eun ) - University of Ulsan College of Medicine Asan Medical Center Department of Microbiology

Abstract


Background: We have reported that internal deletions in the nef, gag, and pol genes in HIV-1?infected patients are induced in those treated with Korean Red Ginseng (KRG). KRG delays the development of resistance mutations to antiretroviral drugs.

Methods: The vif-vpr genes over 26 years in 20 hemophiliacs infected with HIV-1 from a single source were sequenced to investigate whether vif-vpr genes were affected by KRG and KRG plus highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) (hereafter called GCT) and compared the results with our previous data.

Results: A significantly higher number of in-frame small deletions were found in the vif-vpr genes of KRG-treated patients than at the baseline, in control patients, and in ART-alone patients (p < 0.001). These were significantly reduced in GCT patients (p < 0.05). In contrast, sequences harboring a premature stop codon (SC) were more significant in GCT patients (10.1%) than in KRG-alone patients, control (p < 0.01), and ART-alone patients (p = 0.078 for peripheral blood mononuclear cells). The proportion of SC in Vpr was similar to that in Vif, whereas the proportion of sequences revealing SC in the env-nef genes was significantly lower than that in the pol-vif-vpr genes (p < 0.01). The genetic distance was 1.8 times higher in the sequences harboring SC than in the sequences without SC (p < 0.001). Q135P in the vif gene is significantly associated with rapid progression to AIDS (p < 0.01).

Conclusion: Our data show that KRG might induce sΔ in the vif-vpr genes and that vif-vpr genes are similarly affected by lethal mutations.

키워드

HIV-1; Korean Red Ginseng; Lethal mutations; Small deletion; vif-vpr genes

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