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Ginsenoside Rh2 reduces depression in offspring of mice with maternal toxoplasma infection during pregnancy by inhibiting microglial activation via the HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway

Journal of Ginseng Research 2022년 46권 1호 p.62 ~ 70
Xu Xiang, Lu Yu-Nan, Cheng Jia-Hui, Lan Hui-Wen, Lu Jing-Mei, Jin Guang-Nan, Xu Guang-Hua, Piao Hu-Nan, Jin Xuejun, Piao Lian-Xun,
소속 상세정보
 ( Xu Xiang ) - Yanbian University College of Pharmacy
 ( Lu Yu-Nan ) - Yanbian University College of Pharmacy
 ( Cheng Jia-Hui ) - Yanbian University College of Pharmacy
 ( Lan Hui-Wen ) - Yanbian University College of Pharmacy
 ( Lu Jing-Mei ) - Yanbian University College of Pharmacy
 ( Jin Guang-Nan ) - Yanbian University College of Pharmacy
 ( Xu Guang-Hua ) - Yanbian University College of Pharmacy
 ( Piao Hu-Nan ) - Yanbian University Affiliated Hospital Department of Neurology
 ( Jin Xuejun ) - Yanbian University College of Pharmacy
 ( Piao Lian-Xun ) - Yanbian University College of Pharmacy

Abstract


Background: Maternal Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection during pregnancy has been associated with various mental illnesses in the offspring. Ginsenoside Rh2 (GRh2) is a major bioactive compound obtained from ginseng that has an anti-T. gondii effect and attenuates microglial activation through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. GRh2 also alleviated tumor-associated or lipopolysaccharide-induced depression. However, the effects and potential mechanisms of GRh2 on depression-like behavior in mouse offspring caused by maternal T. gondii infection during pregnancy have not been investigated.

Methods: We examined GRh2 effects on the depression-like behavior in mouse offspring, caused by maternal T. gondii infection during pregnancy, by measuring depression-like behaviors and assaying parameters at the neuronal and molecular level.

Results: We showed that GRh2 significantly improved behavioral measures: sucrose consumption, forced swim time and tail suspended immobility time of their offspring. These corresponded with increased tissue concentrations of 5-hydroxytryptamine and dopamine, and attenuated indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase or enhanced tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the prefrontal cortex. GRh2 ameliorated neuronal damage in the prefrontal cortex. Molecular docking results revealed that GRh2 binds strongly to both TLR4 and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1).

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that GRh2 ameliorated the depression-like behavior in mouse offspring of maternal T. gondii infection during pregnancy by attenuating the excessive activation of microglia and neuroinflammation through the HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. It suggests that GRh2 could be considered a potential therapy in preventing and treating psychiatric disorders in the offspring mice of mothers with prenatal exposure to T. gondii infection.

키워드

Ginsenoside Rh2; Microglia; Offspring; Psychiatric disorders; Toxoplasma gondii

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