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한국 학교간호활동에 대한 실태조사

A Study on Activities of School Nurses in Korea

공중보건잡지 1972년 9권 1호 p.139 ~ 156
이경식, 김화중,
소속 상세정보
이경식 (  ) - 서울대학교 보건대학원
김화중 (  ) - 서울대학교 보건대학원

Abstract


A survey on school nurses presently engaged in school health services in Korea was conducted in December 1969 for the period of one month, to find out activities, line of supervision, general and special preparation for the job, preferances for geographical location and level of school, and a composite picture of school nurses. Study population was 765 nurses presently engaged in school nursing and method used for data collection was a questionnaire consisting of 65 items which were distributed and replies obtained by mail. 63 per cent of the study population responded and returned the questionnaires. An analysis of the data collected showed the following findings.
1. General composition of school nurses: majority of nurses were in the age group of 25-29 and married nurses appeared to have a preference in school nursing.
Basic nursing training of the nurses showed that the technical nursing school graduates occupied posts at primary schools and collegiate program graduates and diploma graduates held posts at middle and high schools. The experiences of nurses revealed that more nurses with long nursing experience were engaged at the lower level of schools. This may be revealing the history of school nursing services at the different level of schools.
2. Special training in school nursing: 60 per cent of total respondents have had short or long term training to perepare themselves for the job.
Large proportion of older nurses had some form of special training in public health. For the preparation of school nursing in basic nursing education, the graduates of lower level of school appeared to have less learning experience.
3. Area preference of respondents: majority of diploma graduates and all collegiate graduates are engaged in urban schools while majority of technical graduates and a small proportion of diploma graduates hold positions in rural schools.
4. Common number of classes in a rural school ranged from 30 to 49 while urban schools showed a wider range of 40 to 79 classes in a school. However, the work of a school nurse in general was shown to be overloaded regardless of characteristics of community.
5. Common walking distance from school to nearest health facilities was found to be 15 minutes in both communities. Nearest health facilities in both communities was private clnics, and health center heald in second nearest place in rural community.
6. School nurse´s line of professional supervision was none existance except administrative one.
7. As for the school nurses activites, functions of. management and teaching, direct health services, case finding and follow-up care, class teaching participation of health related subjects were included. The proportion of class teaching and health counselling in daily activites was about 10 per cent while larger proportion of time was allocated for teaching of non-health subjects as substitutes of regular teaching when professional teachers were absent due to some reason.
With the consideration of the above mentioned factors related to school nurses activities, the following recommendations are made:
1. Standardized professional preparation of school nurses should be provided.
2. Multiple angle of administrative coordiantion and improvement of its mechanism should be brought about for better and proper utilization of school nurses through recognition of importance of school health services.
3. Active participation of school nurses to professional organization for personal as well as professional growth should be emphsized.
4. Provision of job descriptions, standards for qualification and practice must be made.
5. Opportunity for refresher courses should be givent to school nurses to inform up to date development in fields of public health and related areas.

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