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一部 農村地域의 民俗醫療利用에 關한 調査

A Study on Utilization of Folk Medicine in Rural Area

공중보건잡지 1974년 11권 1호 p.25 ~ 37
송달옥,
소속 상세정보
송달옥 (  ) - 서울대학교 보건대학원

Abstract


In order to study the current practice status of folklore therapy for diseases and injuries in a part of rural areas in Korea, surveys were conducted on 180 households consisting of 1,009 persons in seven townships in Kimpo-gun (county), Kyunggi Do (province) during the five-day period from 1 to 5 August 1973. The seven townships were Kimpo-myon, Yangchon-myon, Kochon-myon, Hasong-myon, Taegon-myon, Wolgon-myon, and Kumdan-myon. Through the surveys, the following conclusion has been reached:
1. General data of surveyed populace:
(1) The male-female ratio of the populace was nearly 50 to 50. The number of persons per household was approximately 5.6. The age group of 40 to 49 years constituted the greatest proportion or 20.8 per cent of the population, the age group of 30 to 39 years, 19.7 per cent of the second greatest proportion, and the age group of 80 years and above 0.7 per cent, the smallest proportion.
(2) The surveyed populace was broken down by occupation into 43.8 per cent for agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, 19.1 per cent for housekeeping, and 9.5 per cent for students.
(3) They were broken down by education into 37.5 per cent or the greatest proportion for primary school graduates, 30.2 per cent for uneducated person and 14.5 per cent for middle school graduates.
(4) By marital status, they were broken down into 69.2 per cent for married persons, 21.8 per cent for unmarried persons, 7.3 per cent for spouse-deceased persons, 1.2 per cent for separated persons, and 0.5 per cent for divorced persons.
(5) The interviewees were broken down by religion into 68.2 per cent for unreligious persons, 11.4 per cent for Confucianists, 9.0 per cent for Protestants 5.1 per cent for Buddhists, and 4.9 per cent for Catholics.
(6) Most or 94.7 per cent of the population was born in rural areas and 5.3 per per cent in urban areas.(7) Most or 94.7 per cent of them lived in their own houses, 1.9 per cent in chartered houses, and 1.6 per cent in rented houses.
2. Utilization of medical facilities: (For the one-year period from early August 1972 to late July 1973)
(1) The greatest proportion or 32.4 per cent of them received initial medical care from pharmacies, 27.0 per cent underwent folklore therapy, 20.4 per cent visited hospitals or clinics, and 1.1 per cent or the smallest proportion were treated by doctors who visited patient´s home.
(2) The greatest proportion or 36.3 per cent received second medical care from pharmacies, 19.5 per cent from herb medicine, and 18.7 per cent from folklore therapeutists.
(3) Those who received medical care from herb doctor and folklore therapy on the third occasion altogether constituted 27.1 per cent, a rather great proportion.
(4) On the third and subsequent occasions, 81.8 per cent received folklore therapy, 9.1 per cent superstitious treatment and another 9.1 per cent medicine from pharmacies.
(5) As a whole, the greatest proportion or 31.5 per cent utilized pharmacies, 26.4 per cent received folklore therapies, and 15.6 per cent visited hospitals or clinics.
3. Outline of folklore therapy: (For the one-year period from early August 1972 to late July 1973)(1) Out of the 1,009 persons surveyed through interviews, 744 persons (73.7%) had been sick. Ratio of folklore therapy cases practiced to sick cases was 100.0 per cent for congenital deformity, 88.8 per cent for complications caused by pregnancy, child delivery, and puerperium and 71.1 per cent for sicknesses resulting from accident, poisoning, and violence. No folklore therapy was practiced for neoplasms.
(2) The average number of sick cases per population of 100 persons was 4.7 for diseases of nervous system and sense organs, 4.2 for digestive organs, and 4.2 for senility.
(3) A total of 149 kinds of folklore therapy were practiced on 190 occasions, most of which were unscientific and empirical. Much creaturely products, herbs, and ordinary food items were eaten raw or cooked.
(4) The average number of cases of folklore therapy practiced per population of 100 persons was 13.9 for male and 23.5 for female. Its practice for females was thus approximately 1.8 times as frequent as that for males. In case of male, the age group of 80 years and above practiced folklore therapy in 25.0 cases per population of 100 persons, the age group of 10 to 19 years 19.4 cases, and the age group of 50 to 59 years 18.2 cases. In cases of female, the age group of 20 to 29 years practiced it in 37.1 cases, the age group of 50 to 59 years 33.8 cases, and the age group of 4 years and below did not practice it.
(5) Unemployed persons practiced it in 78.7 cases per population of 100, persons those engaged in unclassifiable occupations in 50.0 cases and senile and crippled persons in 37.0 cases.
(6) Uneducated persons practiced it in 22.0 cases per population of 100 persons, those barely reading Korean alphabet in 20.0 cases, and primary school graduates in 19.6 cases. Thus, most of its users were low in educational standard.
(7) By marital status, divorced persons utilized it in 40.0 cases per population of 100 persons, and separated persons in 38.3 cases.
(8) By place of birth, those born in rural areas utilized it in 18.9 cases per population of 100 persons, and those born in rural areas in 17.0 cases, thereby showing no significant difference.
(9) Buddhists utilized therapy in 21.6 cases per population of 100 persons, Confucianists in 19.1 cases, and unreligious persons in 18.9 cases.
(10) As for expenses spent for folklore therapy, it costed nothing for 74.7 per cent of the cases, less than ₩ 1,000 was spent for 14.7 per cent, and the average cost was approximately ₩ 766.
(11) In 62.1 per cent of the cases, the utilization of folklore therapy was suggested by folklore sayings; in 22.6 per cent, it was recommended by neighbors; and 10.0 per cent, habitually.
(12) As for the perceived results of folklore therapy, 32.1 per cent of cases were completely cured, 25.3 per cent improving, 16.3 per cent unchanging, and 14.2 per cent still undergoing treatment.

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