잠시만 기다려 주세요. 로딩중입니다.

우리 나라 人口와 醫師의 分布

POPULATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF PHYSICIANS

대한의학협회지 1969년 12권 10호 p.881 ~ 899
권이혁,
소속 상세정보
권이혁 (  ) - 서울대학교 의과대학 예방의학교실

Abstract


In order to figure out the relationship between population and distribution of physicians in Korea, publications and materials in this field were reviewed and analized. Major subjects in this study are Population Trends in Korea, Status of Physciains, and Relationship between Population and Distribuof Physicians. As the results of this study folwing findings were obtained.
1. Population Trends in Korea
Growth of Population :
The first simplified census was taken in year of 1925. Censuses were repeated on 1 October of years 1930, 1935 and 1940 and on 1 May of the year 1944 under the Japanese regime. The 1944census was also of a simplified type, concentrating on the assessment of labour force. The censuses and year-end population showed some discrepancies among themselves.
Since the Government of the Republic of Korea was established a total of four censuses have been taken, as follows :
1) Total Population Survey in 1949
2) Simplified Total Population Survey in 1955
3) The 1960 Census
4) Total Population Survey in 1966
At the moment of the Liberation the population in whole country was close to 25, 760, 000; the population was grown up to 30, 067, 000 in 1967.
Vital Statistics :
The statistics on vital events in this country, in general, have been inadequate and insufficient. The Government is reported to be contemplating measures to promote a national movement to improve vital events registration. As of 1967, crude birth rate, crude death rate and natural increase rate were estimated at 34.0, 10.0 and 24.0, respectively; average infant mortality during 1960-1965 was assessed at 58.2 with discrepancies between urban and Characteristics of Population:
The population of 0-14 years of age occupied 43.9% of the total and that of 65 years of age and more 3.4%, as of 1966. Sex ratio in 1966 was 101.3 In the number of school population, comparing the status in 1967 with that in 1945, primary school population increased by 4 times, middle school by 22 times, high school by 10 times and color university by 21 times. Illiteracy rate in whole country is no more than 20% at the present day.
Urbanization of Population :
Urbanization of population was quite negligible in Korea before the Liberation. The urban population in 1920 was only 3.4% of the whole population and no more than 5.6% in 1930, and reached 11.6% in 1940. After the Liberation the process of urbanization was given a definite impetus. The urban population reached 17.2% in 1949, 24.5% in 1955, 28.0% in 1960 and 33.6% in 1966. This rapid urbanization may be in part attributed to industrial development, though there are still other factors to be considered.
Though urbanization is underway almost universally it is also true that population concentration is much sharper in large metropolitan areas than in middle sized cities and small towns. For example, the population of Seoul and Pusan was 14.4% of the whole population in 1960 and 17.9% in 1966.
Life Expectation at Birth :
Expectation of life at birth was estimated at 45.80 years for 1934-36, 46.80 for 1938-42, 52.60 for 1955-60, 57.90 for 1961 and 61. 41 for 1965 and 63.14 for 1967.
Population Projection :
The Bureau of Statistics of Economic Planning Board made a projection of population for the period between 1960 and 2000. Four different estimates were applied to this projection, namely the high (high birth, high death), high-medium (high birth, medium death) medium-medium (medium birth, medium death) and low (low birth, low death) medium-medium(medium birth, medium death) and low (low birth, low death) estimates. The population was projected at 43, 210, 000 in 1980 and 76, 693, 000 in 2,000 by the high estimate, 46, 025, 000 in 1980 and 93, 694,000 in 2000 by the medium-high, 42, 727,000 in 1980 and 72, 718, 000 in 2000 by the medium-medium and 41,080, 000 in 1980 and 60,832, 000 by the low.
2. Status of Physicians
Total Number of Physicians :
Registered number of licenced physicians in Korea as of 1967, was 12,269 in total; out of the total 11,223 were graduates from medical colleges, 601 were physicians who passed state examination and 445 were limited physicians.
Chracteristics of Physicians :
Based on the case analyses of regular registration in 1967, the following characteristics of lisenced physicians were found.
1) Age distribution : 29 years of age and under, 21.2%, 30-39, 45.2%; 40-49, 17.7%; 50-59, 10.9%; 60-69, 4.0% and 70 and more, 1.0%.
2) Sex ratio : 550, as of 1967.
3) Employment: practice, 43. 1% military service, 16.2%: government, 6.8%: school and public organization, 6.7% and so on.
4) Physicians on abroad : Total number of graduates from medical colleges up to February 1968 was 13,581: and out of the total, 1,706 or 13% had been on abroad.
5) Specialist : During the period from 1952 to 1967, specialist boardmanship was approved towards 3, 225 physicians : among them largest in number was in surgery with 689, second was in internal medicine with 597 and third was in obstetrics and gynecology with 436. More than half of the specialists were residing in Seoul.
Urbanization of Physicians :
Urbanization of physicians, particularly concentration toward large cities is remarkable. Out of the total physicians, 37% were concentrated to Seoul and 45% to Seoul and Pusan, as of 1966.
3. Population and Distribution of Physicians
Population per Physician :
Population per physician was 3, 500 in 1956 and 2,500 each both in 1967 and 1968, respectively. Significant difference was observed in population per physician by province; it was 1,043 in Seoul and 1,816 in Pusan, while 6,292 in Kangwon-do, as of 1966. The number of physicians per 10,000 population was 3.1 in 1956, while 4.1 in 1967.
Doctorless Area :
Out of the total 1,466 Eubs and Myeons, as of 1965, 649 or 44.2% were without any physicians: Among the whole population, 7 million and half were residing on these doctorless Eubs and Myeons. The highest rate of doctorless population was observed in Jeonranam-do with 47.8% and the second in Jeonrabug-do with 44.8% In 1966, 28.2% of todeaths in whole country were certified by phy and significant difference in the proportion of death certified by qualified medical personnel. That proportion was 78.7% in Seoul and 67.4% in Pusan, while that was 5.1% in Jeonranam-do and 6.0% in Jeju-do.
Increase Rate of Physicians in Number :
During the period from 1957 to 1967, the annual in creaserate of physicians in number was 5.9% In 1967, theincrease rate of physicians was 5.9%, while the natural increase rate of population was 24.0% in sameyear. Increase rate of physicians, in general, overcomes natural increase rate of population and increase rate of physicians is expected to be more rain future. It is not easy, however, to set up. a proper line between the supply and demand of physicians since many factors such as public Health or medical care system, gross national product, etc. have to considered in this regards.

키워드

원문 및 링크아웃 정보

등재저널 정보