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Persicaria Japonica (MISSNER) Gross et Nakai의 二型花와 受精力에 關한 硏究

STUDIES ON THE DIMORPHISM AND FERTILITY OF PERSICARIA JAPONICA (MEISSNER) GROSS ET NAKAI

한국식물학회지 1960년 3권 1호 p.1 ~ 15
Harn Chang-Yawl,
소속 상세정보
 ( Harn Chang-Yawl ) - Chonnam National University College of Agriculture

Abstract


HARN, Chang Yawl : Studies on the dimorphism and Fertility of Persicaria japonica (MEISSNER) Cross et Nakai. Kor Jour. Bot. 3(I) 1-15 1960 Numerous investigations, since the works of DARWIN, have teen made regarding the heterostylous plants by JOST (1907), CORRENS (1924), LAIBACK (1924), LEWIS (1943), and many others.
Studies on the heterostylous Polygonum, however, were not reported except for the buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum, which was investigatedy by SCHOCH-BODMER (1930), EAST (1934), FROLOVA & Co-Workers (1946), MORRIS (1947, 1951), TATEBE (1949, 1951, 1953), present author (1957), and others. It is because no heterostylous species, besides buckwheat, have been known to exist in the Polygonum family.
The author, during his studies on both heterostylism and fertility of Polygonaceae, has found that the species, persicaris japonica (Meissener) Gross et Nakai, is not dioecious as has been known in taxnonomy, but in reality heterostylous both morphologically and physiologically. It was found that this Plant, regarded by taxonomist, as a male plant setting no seed, actually set seed (botanical fruit) when legitimate combination was made.
Since his brief report on the dimorphic Phenomena of this plant in 1956, the author´s further research on the manner of fertilization has revealed that this species is a peeuliae type whose dimorphism has undergone extreme specialization structurally and physiologically, the short-styled individual behaving in nature as a male plant and the long-styled individual, as female, whereas in controlled pollination the plant shows highly differentiated typical dimorphism.
When compared with the other dimorphous species of this family, F. esculentum and P. srnticosa. it has been clarified that these three species differ in the degree of differentigtion of their dimorphism morphologically and physiologically. That is, P. japonica has developed such a high specialization as to mislead the taxonomists, while P. senticosa shows almost no noticeable difference between long- and shortstyled individuals retaining most of the inherent physiological character common to the genus except for the fact that it has two forms of flowers. F. esculentum appears to have taken the intermediate position in every respect.
The results obtained in the present experiment are summarized as follows :
1) P. japonica has two kinds of individuals, one long style-shore stamened: the other, short style-long stamened. The floral structure of this plants shows typical characteristics of dimorphic heterostylism. The differentiation between the two forms of flower has proceeded so highly both in primary and secondary difference of flower structure that this may be regarded as the most specialized form of dimorphism.
2) The differences of floral structure between the long and short styled individuals are remarkable coupared with the other dimorphic species of the family.
3) The stament of long styled plants show the sign of deteriolation whereas these of the short styled flower are well-developed.
4) When lecgitimate combinations are made, both L- and S-styled individuals are fertilized well and set seed (fruit), while in the illegitimate combination no fertilization and seed setting occur. Physiologically this species exhibits the typical behavior of dimorphic plants.
5) The self-fertile character, so common in other species of the other non-heterostyle Polygonum familly, has disappeared completely.
6) Under natural conditions, no or few seed setting is observed in short styled individuals that behave as if they were male plants.
7) In hand pollination, the combinations of both L x S aud S x L alike yield relatively good fertility and seed-formations, the behavior of short styled individuals in artificial pollination differing remarkably from that in nature.
8) Under controlled pollination. L x S combination sets far more seed than in the combination of S x L. In the S-styled individuals, the fertilized flower has the tendency of its seed more readily falling off in every stage of seed development than in the L-styled individuals.
9) The behaviors of pollen tubes just parallels the results of the fertility test. That is, in the illegitimate combination, L-selfed, L x L, S-selfed, and S x S, the growth of pollen tubes is checked in the style, while in legitimately combined L x S and S x L, the pollen tubes grow well reaching the ovaries within 40-50 minutes after pollination. The response of short styled individuals, known as male plant among taxonomists, is identical, as far as behavior of pollen tube growth and fertilization are concerned, to that of long styled individuals, the so-called female plant.
10) The pollen grains from the short-styled plants are complete and fertile, whereas 70% of those of L-styled are found to be abortive, i. e., empty contents.
11) The remaining 30% of pollen of L-plant shows varied degree of stainability when stained with iron-aceto-carmine‥‥‥mostly light red, while the pollen grains of S-style individuals are dark brown indicating complete fertility and viability.
12) The abuudance of sterile pollen in L-styled and the nature of seed-dropping which occurs in S-styled individuals appear to be the main causes why the short styled individuals bear no seed in nature. Under controlled lesitimate union, S x L, the careful and elaborate pollination would give the S-styled flowers the opportunities to receive the fertile pollens, though few in number, from L-styled plant, thus enabling S-plant to bear seed.
13) This species is not dioecious as is regatded by taxonomists, but typical dimorphic plant which has so highly specialized in floral structures and functions that the long-styled plant behaves just like a female individual; and the short-styled, like a male.

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