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學校精神保健에 關한 考察 Some Considerations on Mental Health in the School

최신의학 1964년 7권 10호 p.75 ~ 80
김명호,
소속 상세정보
김명호 (  ) 
연세대학교 의과대학 예방의학교실

Abstract


Today, mental health is rapidly becoming recognizes as one of the most important programs in the Public Health field.-Mental health is defined as the science and art which aids the individual in securing a satisfactory mental and emotional adjustment to his environment. In recognition of this fact the school health program now emphasize good mental as welll as physical health. The aim of education 1 and mental health are theoriticaily the same thing. Each has as its principle objective the development of well rounded individuals, capable of living fully and richly in their culture.
It is axiomatic that an individual´s behaivor are to a considerable extent the products of the several environments in which he has lived. During his childhood ,years, his family, his school, and his community mould his character shape his personality and lay the foundation for his future. If the family, the school, and the community do their work well, his chances for a successful and happy life are greatly enhanced, if they do their work badly, his personality maybe so warped that satisfactory adjustments in adult life will be difficult, if not impossible, to achieve.
In too many instances, the school has forgotten that the child is not mind but a human being, and, that he must be considered as a whole. As Shaffer says in many ways the conventional school thwarts the pupil´s needs and destrutcive influence, whereas it should be an integrating and adjusting one. It is no longer considered that the sole responsibility of the school is to "train the mind". For a long time now, considerable stress has been placed upon the importance of physical health and physical development.
Teachere should have a broad understanding of the child with whom they are working. In so far as mental health is concerned, it is especially essential that they posses clear concepts about individual differences and fundamental needs. We have to consider about the mental health of teachers. There are many frustrating factors in the work and in the personal life of the teacher. Three of the most important of these are the attitude of the community, low- salary, and continued close association with immature mind. We school children´s parents should help teachers can work with our children without any frustrations.
The relationship between teacher and pupil should be such that the child is made to feel emotionally secure. The general atmosphere of the classroom should be relaxed and friendly. The teacher should understand the emotional needs of her pupils and should take them into consideration of the routnie work.
With respect to behavior disorders, the school has two principal functions;
1) To make its instructional program positive and to use displinary means which are constructive, so that emotional maladjustments will be prevented rather than caused;
2) To identify those c`.iidren who are malajusted and to provide adequate remedial treatment them.
The school has a twofold responsibility with respect to the mental health of the children in thr classrooms:
1) the prevention of behavior disorders through the utilization of hygienic measures.
2) the identifcation and treatment of children who have developed behavior disorders. It should be kept in mind, however, that ;there is no rule-of-thumb or panacea in correcting preventing mental and emotional difficulties. Individual differences demand a tailorcut prescription tp meet ech unique set of facts involving the personal equation..
Mental health is concerned primarily with prevention. It seeks to create to personal and social enviro. nment which furthers sound mental health. An important aspects of this milien in the set of attitude held by the individaI and the social group of he is a part. In fact, mental health is best understood in terms of the point of view which it represents:
1) Respect for one´s own personality and for the personalities of others.
2) Recognition of limitations in the self and in others.
3) An appreciation of the importance of the causal sequence in behavior.
4) An understanding of the basic needs which motivate behavior.
5) A realization that behavior is a function of the whole individual.
The school people, school nurse and physician, and child´s parents are working to carry out the sound mental health of the child with so intimate communication and best efforts as the standing point of view respectively. We remember always the primary aim of mental health is the preservation and development of a wholesome personality and prevention of personality disorders.

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