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Assessment of acute and repeated pulmonary toxicities of oligo(2-(2-ethoxy)ethoxyethyl guanidium chloride in mice

Toxicological Research 2021년 37권 1호 p.99 ~ 113
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Abstract


Oligo(2-(2-ethoxy)ethoxyethyl guanidinium chloride (PGH) and polyhexamethyleneguanidine phosphate (PHMG-P) are cationic biocides containing a guanidine group. Direct exposure of the lungs to PHMG-P is known to induce pulmonary inflammation and fibrotic changes. Few studies have assessed the pulmonary toxicity of PGH, another member of the guanidine family. In this study, we assessed the acute and repeated toxicity of PGH and PHMG-P to compare the pathological progression induced by both chemicals. PGH (1.5 mg/kg) or PHMG (0.6 mg/kg) was instilled intratracheally to mice once or three times every 4 days; subsequently, cytokine levels were quantified and a histopathological examination was performed. To verify the toxic mechanism of PGH, we quantified cell viability and cytokine production induced by PGH or PHMG-P in the presence or absence of anionic material in cells. Instillation of PGH and PHMG-P into the mouse lung increased cytokine production, immune cell infiltration, and pulmonary fibrotic changes. These pathological changes were exacerbated over time in the single- and the repeated-dose PHMG-P groups, but were resolved over time in the PGH groups. PGH or PHMG-P showed cytotoxic effects, IL-1β secretion, and ROS production in a dose-dependent manner in human cell lines. However, the co-treatment of anionic materials with PGH or PHMG-P significantly reduced these toxic responses, which confirmed that the cation of PGH disrupted the plasma membrane via ionic interaction, as observed for PHMG-P. In addition, we suggest the disruption of plasma membrane as a molecular initiating event of cationic chemicals-induced adverse outcomes when exposed directly to the lungs.

키워드

Oligo(2-(2-ethoxy)ethoxyethyl guanidinium chloride; Polyhexamethyleneguanidine phosphate; Cationic biocide; Pulmonary toxicity; Molecular initiating event

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