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急性一酸化炭素中毒症의 生理學的 硏究

Physiological Studies on Acute Carbon MonoxidePoisoning in the Anesthetized Dog

항공의학 1961년 9권 1호 p.1 ~ 28
김옥재,
소속 상세정보
김옥재 (  ) - 항공의학연구소

Abstract


In view of the frequent incidence of acute carbon monoxide(CO) poisoning among air crews as well as among Korean residents who are daily using briquette, the author undertook in past a series of studies concerning (1) the tolerance of mice to CO, and (2) changes in erythrocyte counts and hematocrit ratios in the CO intoxication. In these investigations the author derived a formula which would enable us to compute the appearance time of the respiratory arrest when breathing various concentrations of CO. Moreover, it was pointed out that there is a considerable individual difference in the appearance time of the respiratory arrest for a given CO concentration. Although it has been previously stated by various investigators that an increase in the hemoglobin.concentration during CO exposure is one of the most important factors which increase the tolerance of animals to CO intoxication, there was no obvious correlation between the degree of increase in the hemoglobin concentration and the appearance time of the respiratory arrest during the acute CO exposure.
These earlier observations led the author to undertake more systematic studies on this problem of individual difference in order that one can understand what factors are involved in determining the tolerance of each animal to a given CO environment.
Experiments were carried out on 24 anesthetized dogs. Various measurements were made release adrenaline as indicated by the increased blood Sugar, the pulse rate and the blood pressure.
The increase in the hematocrit ratio may also be attributed to the splenic contraction due to adrenaline released. However, as the arterial oxygen conten drops further, the central nervous system may be suppressed as a result of which the vasomotor center and the cardiac center become less active and thus the pulse rate and the blood pressure decrease to a subnormal level. As long as hyperventilation lasts, the respiratory muscles have to work harder and this would bring about the increase in oxygen consumption. Although the greater carbon dioxide output was observed, this could be best attributed to hyperventilation as well as to the oxidation of CO to carbon dioxide.
The observed increase in the cardiac output is very difficult to interpret in view of the above statement that the activity of the cardiac center may be suppressed as a result of the reduction in arteiral oxygen, although this elevated cardiac output would be of great help in prolonging the survival time of the animal. In other words many changes take place upon exposure to CO and some(e. g. increases in the hematocrit ratio, in the blood sugar level and in the cardiac output) of these may undoubtedly increase the tolerance of the animal to CO while some e. g. increases in 02 consumption and in hydrogen ion concentration, and in blood pressure) may be actually detrimental to the maintenance of life in CO environment. Hence, it is virtually impossible to single out a factor which is most important in determining the tolerance of animal to CO.

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