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Clinical Evaluation of a Patient With Symptoms of Colonic or Anorectal Motility Disorders

Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility 2020년 26권 4호 p.423 ~ 436
Curtin Bryan, Jimenez Enoe, Rao Satish S. C.,
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 ( Curtin Bryan ) - Augusta University Medical College of Georgia Digestive Health Center Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
 ( Jimenez Enoe ) - Augusta University Medical College of Georgia Digestive Health Center Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
 ( Rao Satish S. C. ) - Augusta University Medical College of Georgia Digestive Health Center Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology

Abstract


Constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, fecal incontinence, abdominal pain, and anorectal pain are problems that affect 40% of the population. They commonly present with overlapping symptoms indicating that their pathophysiology affects multiple segments of the gut as well as brain and gut interactions. Clinically, although some conditions are readily recognized, dyssynergic defecation, fecal incontinence, and anorectal pain are often missed or misdiagnosed. Consequently, the assessment of lower gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with suspected colonic or anorectal motility disorder(s) remains challenging for most clinicians. A detailed history, use of the Bristol stool form scale, prospective stool diaries, ideally through a phone App, digital rectal examination, and judicious use of complementary diagnostic tests are essential. Additionally, it is important to evaluate the impact of these problems on quality of life and psychosocial issues, because they are intricately linked with these disorders. The Rome IV diagnostic questionnaire for functional gastrointestinal disorders can provide additional information often missed during history taking. Here, we discuss a systematic approach for the clinical evaluation of patients with suspected lower gastrointestinal problems, grouped under 4 common diagnostic categories. We describe how to take a detailed history, perform meticulous digital rectal examination, and use validated tools to supplement clinical evaluation, including assessments of quality of life and scoring systems for disease severity and digital Apps. These tools could facilitate a comprehensive plan for clinical management including diagnostic tests, and translate the patients’ complaints into definable, diagnostic categories.

키워드

Anorectal pain; Constipation; Diagnostic tests, routine; Fecal incontinence; Irritable bowel syndrome

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