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The Discovery of Clinically Applicable Biomarkers for Bipolar Disorder: A Review of Candidate and Proteomic Approaches

Chonnam Medical Journal 2020년 56권 3호 p.166 ~ 179
Muneer Ather,
소속 상세정보
 ( Muneer Ather ) - Riphah International University Islamic International Medical College

Abstract


Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric condition which affects innumerable people across the globe. The etiopathogenesis of BD is multi-faceted with genetic, environmental and psychosocial factors playing a role. Hitherto, the diagnosis and management of BD are purely on empirical grounds as we lack confirmed biomarkers for this condition. In this regard, hypothesis-driven investigations have been unable to identify clinically applicable biomarkers, steering the field towards newer technologies. Innovative, state-of-the-art techniques like multiplex immunoassays and mass spectrometry can potentially investigate the entire proteome. By detecting up or down regulated proteins, novel biomarkers are identified and new postulates about the etiopathogenesis of BD are specified. Hence, biological pathways are uncovered which are involved in the initiation and advancement of the disease and new therapeutic targets are identified. In this manuscript, the extant literature is thoroughly reviewed and the latest findings on candidate BD biomarkers are provided, followed by an overview of the proteomic approaches. It was found that due to the heterogeneous nature of BD no single biomarker is feasible, instead a panel of tests is more likely to be useful. With the application of latest technologies, it is expected that validated biomarkers will be discovered which will be useful as diagnostic tools and help in the delivery of individually tailored therapies to the patients.

키워드

Biomarkers; Bipolar Disorder; Proteomics; Mass Spectrometry

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