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Extracellular RNAs and Extracellular Vesicles: Inception, Current Explorations, and Future Applications

한국식품위생안전성학회지 2020년 35권 6호 p.535 ~ 543
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Abstract


In addition to the ubiquitous roles of cellular RNA in genetic regulations, gene expression and phenotypicvariations in response to environmental cues and chemotactic signals, the regulatory roles of a new type of RNA called extracellularRNAs (exRNAs) are an up-and-coming area of research interest. exRNA is transported outside the cell through membraneblebs known as membrane vesicles or extracellular vesicles (EVs). EV formation is predominant and conserved amongall microbial forms, including prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and archaea. This review will focus on the three major topics concerningbacterially derived exRNAs, i.e., 1) the discovery of exRNA and influence of extraneous RNA over bacterial gene regulations,2) the known secretion mechanism for the release of exRNA, and 3) the possible applications that can be devised withthese exRNA secreted by different gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Further, this review will also provide an opinionon exRNA- and EV-derived applications such as the species-specific exRNA markers for diagnostics and the possible roles ofexRNA in probiotics and the epigenetic regulations of the gut microbiome.

키워드

exRNA; Extracellular vesicles; Secretory mechanisms; Molecular pathogenesis; Diagnostics

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